We predict entity type distributions in Web search queries via probabilistic inference in graphical models that capture how entitybearing queries are generated. We jointly model the interplay between latent user intents that govern queries and unobserved entity types, leveraging observed signals from query formulations and document clicks. We apply the models to resolve entity types in new queries and to assign prior type distributions over an existing knowledge base.
Motivation Types of Distributed Operating Systems Network Structure Network Topology Communication Structure Communication Protocols Robustness Design Issues An Example: Networking
To provide a high-level overview of distributed systems and the networks that interconnect them To discuss the general structure of distributed operating systems
Installation of new system. When no existing system is present, the designer must select the system that is most appropriate for the end user. High temperature hot water and steam/condensate systems are the most common types of distribution systems currently used on military installations. However, a new system should only use the temperatures and pressures necessary to meet the requirements…
–Function Blocks, Functions, Data Types, Programs
–Ladder Diagram (LD) for logic control (“power flow”)
–Function Block Diagram (FBD) for regulatory control (“data flow”)
–Sequential Function Chart (SFC) for state-machine control
–Structured Text (ST) for information processing
–Instruction List (IL) for assembly-level programming
•A Mature, Internationally Adopted Standard
–First edition: 1993
–Second edition: 2001...
It aims at providing assistance in compiling the specifications for your digital projection equipment. It
exclusively focuses on technical questions and does not address the economic, financial and political
dimensions of digital cinema.
Although it does not claim to be complete, this guide intends to be as complete as possible to assist
you with planning your installation. The latter has to meet in France the AFNOR NF S27-100 standard
(“Salle de projection électronique de type cinéma numérique” [“Electronic projection room of the type
digital cinema”]), ...
Parallel and distributed computing has offered the opportunity of solving a wide range
of computationally intensive problems by increasing the computing power of sequential
computers. Although important improvements have been achieved in this field in the last
30 years, there are still many unresolved issues. These issues arise from several broad areas,
such as the design of parallel systems and scalable interconnects, the efficient distribution of
processing tasks, or the development of parallel algorithms....
In the recent years the electrical power utilities are undergoing rapid restructuring process
worldwide. Indeed, with deregulation, advancement in technologies and concern about
the environmental impacts, competition is particularly fostered in the generation side
thus allowing increased interconnection of generating units to the utility networks. These
generating sources are called as distributed generators (DG) and defined as the plant which is
directly connected to distribution network and is not centrally planned and dispatched.
Supervised sequence-labeling systems in natural language processing often suffer from data sparsity because they use word types as features in their prediction tasks. Consequently, they have difﬁculty estimating parameters for types which appear in the test set, but seldom (or never) appear in the training set. We demonstrate that distributional representations of word types, trained on unannotated text, can be used to improve performance on rare words. We incorporate aspects of these representations into the feature space of our sequence-labeling systems. ...
Distributional similarity has been widely used to capture the semantic relatedness of words in many NLP tasks. However, various parameters such as similarity measures must be handtuned to make it work effectively. Instead, we propose a novel approach to synonym identiﬁcation based on supervised learning and distributional features, which correspond to the commonality of individual context types shared by word pairs. Considering the integration with pattern-based features, we have built and compared ﬁve synonym classiﬁers. ...
The Grid is a highly dynamic environment. The standards governing grid services are currently
being defined and software implementations are subject to revision. The resources available are
continually being expanded and changing in configuration. The user community is geographically
widely distributed and volatile. Managing security in this environment, whilst retaining the desired
level of accessibility for users is a challenge for software designers, implementers and site
In this paper we investigate how to automatically determine if two document collections are written from different perspectives. By perspectives we mean a point of view, for example, from the perspective of Democrats or Republicans. We propose a test of different perspectives based on distribution divergence between the statistical models of two collections. Experimental results show that the test can successfully distinguish document collections of different perspectives from other types of collections. ...
There have been many proposals to extract semantically related words using measures of distributional similarity, but these typically are not able to distinguish between synonyms and other types of semantically related words such as antonyms, (co)hyponyms and hypernyms. We present a method based on automatic word alignment of parallel corpora consisting of documents translated into multiple languages and compare our method with a monolingual syntax-based method.
Frequency distribution models tuned to words and other linguistic events can predict the number of distinct types and their frequency distribution in samples of arbitrary sizes. We conduct, for the ﬁrst time, a rigorous evaluation of these models based on cross-validation and separation of training and test data. Our experiments reveal that the prediction accuracy of the models is marred by serious overﬁtting problems, due to violations of the random sampling assumption in corpus data. We then propose a simple pre-processing method to alleviate such non-randomness problems. ...
Following Link [14, 13] and Roberts , I present a semantic analysis of collective- distributivity comes from either an explicit quantifidistributive ambiguity, and resolution of such am- cational operator like each or an implicit distributive biguity by model-based reasoning. This approach operator called the D o p e r a t o r . The D operator goes beyond Scha and Stallard , whose reasoning was motivated by the equivalence in the semantics capability was limited to checking semantic types. of the following sentences.
Different codes are attached to section headings, paragraphs of body text, references and even individual characters and words so that each is set in an appropriate type style, size and line spacing. On the left you have two
Chapter 1, introduction to sales and distribution management. After studying this chapter you will be able: To understand evolution, nature and importance of sales management; to know role and skills of modern sales managers; to understand types of sales managers; to learn objectives, strategies and tactics of sales management;…
Chapter 5, organising and staffing the salesforce. After studying this chapter you will be able: To understand the concepts of the sales organisation, and the basic types of sales organisations, to know specialization within the sales organisation, and alternative organizational approaches for major accounts, to determine the size of the salesforce by using various methods,…