Weather or catastrophe bonds are usually not considered insurance contracts and
therefore fall under the ambit of IAS 39. This is because they do not require an
insurable interest as a pre–condition for payment. For this type of coverage,
the beneficiary does not have to have incurred a loss to benefit from the contract.
Insurance risk should be assessed at the inception of the contract.
We conducted our audit of compliance in accordance with U.S. generally accepted auditing standards;
the standards applicable to financial audits contained in Government Auditing Standards, issued by the
Comptroller General of the United States; and OMB Circular A-133, Audits of States, Local Governments,
and Non-Profit Organizations.
Two types of bills currently exist on the Serbian financial market: T-bills issued by
the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Serbia, and NBS bills, issued by the
National Bank of Serbia. The main idea behind these financial instruments is to facil-
itate the development of the financial market in Serbia. This is in accordance with the
monetary policy of the National Bank of Serbia, but also an important aspect of the
economic restructuring program. Nevertheless, both types of bills are currently trad-
ed only on the primary market.
Cost competition between state regulators and
the OCC, and among state regulators themselves,
has been fueled by two important structural
changes that have occurred in the banking indus-
try over the past two decades. The number of
bank charters has declined, largely because of
increased bank merger and consolidation activity,
and the size and complexity of banking organiza-
tions has increased.
The first change—a decline in the number of
charters—means that the OCC and state regula-
tors are competing for a declining member base.
Despite its rapid development, market segmentation has been a distinctive feature of
China's stock market. On the SHSE and SZSE, two types of stocks, A shares and B
shares, are traded. Denominated in RMB, A shares are available exclusively to domestic
investors. From 1991 onwards, Chinese rms have been allowed to issue B shares to
foreign investors. These B shares are denominated in US dollars on the SHSE and in HK
dollars on the SZSE. Prior to February 2001, their trading was restricted exclusively to
overseas investors, including overseas Chinese residing in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan....
Furthermore, a concrete assessment of the impact of the proposal cannot yet be carried out
by financial institutions until the concrete proposals are made. For the time being the
recommendations lack the sufficient clarity or precision to understand the eventual effects
that can stem from the implementation of the proposals.
Bank accounts that are denominated in foreign currencies can offer
some advantages to diasporas. First, in offering such foreign-currency
denominated bank accounts, banks are the ones that shoulder the risk of
foreign exchange. If account holders hold currency in local denomination,
they are the ones who bear foreign currency risks. Foreign currency
deposit (FCD) accounts have often been used by domestic savers to
maintain the real value of their savings during times of macroeconomic
In terms of type of instrument, financial credit dominates, followed at some distance
by commercial credit (financing purchases or the provision of services). This latter type of
finance has come to account for a smaller share of credit transactions involving companies.
Around 10% are leasing operations, with other items (fixed income, factoring and
documentary credit) representing only a small share. In terms of the currencies used, the
majority of the loans are denominated in pesetas (or euros). The maturity structure is fairly
Increased financing from other banks and bond market investors largely
compensated for the cuts made by European banks in the final quarter of 2011.
As a result, the overall volume of new syndicated and large bilateral loans was
essentially the same as in the third quarter. In trade finance, for example, a
strong balance of Asia-based lenders reported increased demand (Graph 6,
right-hand panel) and these and other non-European lenders ensured that
financing of trade did not fall overall.
Chapter 13 - Financial industry structure. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: The United States has a comparatively large but declining number of banks, nondepository institutions are playing an increasingly important role in the financial system. Five types of financial intermediary may be classified as nondepository institutions.
The economy has suffered from an adverse demand shock – the sharp contraction of 2008-2009 – and from
two types of adverse supply shock. First of all, the trend path for productivity is almost certainly lower than
most people had expected before the economic crisis (although trend growth is probably little changed).
Other types of reports can now be extracted from the PCA database, such as the age and gender of
the patients involved in MIRs reported, or the locations where the incidents occurred. The ability to
extract this type of data is important to the PCA Committee as it moves forward with efforts to
identify and address quality and patient issues statewide. For example, recent database query shows
that 280 Major Incident Reports list the operating room as the location where the incident occurred.
Additional analysis of these statistics is needed, but it is a start towards a review of...
What does it mean to own stock? Basically it means that a stock holder has a share in the company it holds stock in. In a sense the stockholders own a piece of the company that it has stock in. Stock shares are traded, bought and sold at a stock exchange such as the New York Stock Exchange which is the best known, but by no means the only stock exchange. Stocks are a type of security, Securities are instruments giving to their legal holders rights to money or other property. Securities include stocks, bonds, notes, mortgages,...
Ch a p ter 12 Nonbank Finance. Banking is not the only type of financial intermediation you are likely to experience. You might decide to purchase insurance, take out an installment loan from a finance company, or buy a share of stock.
This paper analyzes the cyclical effects of bank capital requirements in a simple model with credit market imperfections. Lending rates are set as a premium over the cost of borrowing from the central bank, with the premium itself depending on collateral. Basel I- and Basel II-type regulatory regimes are deﬁned and a capital channel is introduced through a signaling effect of capital buffers. The macroeconomic effects of
The 2011 survey instrument is similar to the 2009 survey.
However, a few important changes were made to cover a
broader array of non-bank financial services, and to
improve and streamline data collection. Most notably, the
2011 survey added non-bank remittances as AFS covered
in the survey and revised questions related to the time-
frames during which households used AFS. The revisions
to the 2011 survey also streamlined the questions about
the reasons households do not have a bank account.
The emphasis that firms in all three sectors are placing on risk management and risk
measurement issues is encouraging. This should result in stronger and better managed
firms. The ability to improve risk quantification can provide important tools for assessing
risk/return trade-offs and encourage sound risk management practices. However, firms need
to understand the limitations of such methodologies and should supplement these where
necessary, for example through stress testing.