The scope, complexity, and pervasiveness of computer-based and controlled
systems continue to increase dramatically. The consequences of these sys-
tems failing can range from the mildly annoying to catastrophic, with serious
injury occurring or lives lost, human-made and natural systems destroyed,
security breached, businesses failed, or opportunities lost. As software
assumes more of the responsibility of providing functionality and control in
systems, it becomes more complex and more significant to the overall system
performance and dependability...
One of the major responsibilities of a database administrator (DBA) is to ensure that the database is available for use. The DBA can take precautions to minimize failure of the system.
In spite of the precautions, it is naive to think that failures will never occur. The DBA must make the database operational as quickly as possible in case of a failure and minimize the loss of data.
To protect the data from the various types of failures that can occur, the DBA must back up the database regularly. Without a current backup, it is impossible for the DBA to...
The audit should be performed in accordance with the approved plan. However,
the planning process does not end with the start of the execution phase. Rather,
as implementation of the audit proceeds, unanticipated circumstances will often
require that the plan be modified. Such changes should be documented, along
with the reasons for them. If any changes alter significantly the methodology of
the audit or the time or other resources required to carry it out, those changes
should be reviewed and approved by the official, if any, who approved the
Supporting natural language input may improve learning in intelligent tutoring systems. However, interpretation errors are unavoidable and require an effective recovery policy. We describe an evaluation of an error recovery policy in the B EE TLE II tutorial dialogue system and discuss how different types of interpretation problems affect learning gain and user satisfaction.
Stephen Bailey has produced an excellent new edition of his popular book Academic Writing.
This book presents a great blend of advice and practice. The advice focuses on what is
required in terms of academic writing at university. He addresses different types of academic
writing and even includes sample writing texts. The practice breaks down academic writing
by focussing on the language typically required in academic settings with lots of student
There is increasing political and environmental pressure on industry to clean up the water which it uses in many processes, and to re-use this water where possible. This cleaning is done using specially-developed industrial membranes and this book covers the types and design of membranes, how they work and in which industries they are used. Special attention is paid to the textile, food/ beverage, pharmaceutical, oil and pulp and paper industries where such membranes are in regular use.
Natural disasters destroy more property and kill more people with each
passing year. Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis,
floods, landslides, fires and other natural events are becoming more
frequent and their consequences more devastating. Del Moral and
Walker provide a comprehensive summary of the diverse ways in which
natural disasters disrupt humanity and how humans cope. Burgeoning
human numbers, shrinking resources and intensification of the
consequences of natural disasters have produced a crisis of unparalleled
Eleven million tonnes of waste are produced yearly by the European pulp and paper industry, of which 70% originates from the production of deinked recycled paper. Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp, although with less inorganics [...].
Types of Recovery Manager Backups
Recovery Manager provides functionality to back up:
The entire database, every datafile in a tablespace, or a single datafile
The control file
All or selected archived logs
Note: The online redo log files are not backed up when using Recovery Manager.
Closed Database Backups
A closed database backup is defined as a backup of the database while it is closed (offline). This is the same as the consistent database backup. If you are performing a closed backup, the target database must not be open.
The Recovery Storage Group is a new type of Storage Group in Exchange
Server 2003 which is designed to facilitate the recovery of Mailbox Store data
without the need for an alternate Active Directory forest for recovery.
These three activities—requirements gathering, designing/
specifying, and implementing—are deep subjects and worthy of
their own books (see the Annotated Bibliography). I’ll cover the
first two from a project-level perspective in the next few
chapters, and implementation will be the focus later on in the
Different types of projects
Several criteria change the nature of how requirements and
design work are done. I’ll use three simple and diverse project
examples to illustrate these criteria:...
CED builds on both the capacities of young women, and community supports, to
maximize resources. Programs and supports offered to young women through the
network of community organizations they already access can start to work with young
women as individuals to prepare them to enter into the waged economy.
If young women are to share equally in efforts toward CED, the gendered implications of
the programs must be considered. A gender-based analysis of current CED programs
would likely find divisions between the types of CED activities women and men do.
Transportation demand refers to the amount and type of travel people choose given
specific prices and service options. Current trends are changing travel demands in ways
that increase the value of alternative modes (walking, cycling, ridesharing, public transit,
and telecommunications) and more accessible, multi-modal communities.
Important factors when choosing the best breed of chickens for your
situation are: price, market situation, experience, farm management,
local preference and availability.
The price will determine your choice. Modern hybrids are very expen-
sive. They also need very good care and high quality, balanced feed to
be productive. Local breeds are cheaper and better adapted to local
conditions. With adequate care, they are reasonably productive. How-
ever, if you want to raise chickens on a larger scale and decide to buy
balanced feed, it is better to choose the more expensive hybrids. ...
The economy has suffered from an adverse demand shock – the sharp contraction of 2008-2009 – and from
two types of adverse supply shock. First of all, the trend path for productivity is almost certainly lower than
most people had expected before the economic crisis (although trend growth is probably little changed).
Recyclables derived from the various MBT
processes are typically of a lower quality than
those derived from a separate household
recyclate collection system and therefore have
a lower potential for high value markets. The
types of materials recovered from MBT
processes almost always include metals
(ferrous and non-ferrous) and for many
systems this is the only recyclate extracted.
However these plant can help enhance overall
recycling levels and enable recovery of certain
constituent items that may not otherwise be
collected in household systems (e.g. batteries,
steel coat hangers, etc.).
It is already well established that mental illness, across the spectrum of disorders, is both a direct
cause of mortality and morbidity and a significant risk factor for poorer economic, health and social
outcomes, although these adverse outcomes vary by type of disorder and socioeconomic status
(WHO 2005; 2006).
However, it is now becoming clear that the presence or absence of positive
mental health or ‘wellbeing’ also influences outcomes across a wide range of domains.
In this section, you will learn to: Describe Transaction Processing Describe Transaction Recovery Define Transaction Log Identify the Concurrency Problems Identify the Types of Locks Define a Deadlock Describe the Security Scheme Concepts Establish the Security Scheme.
Clients just specify the type of events that they are interested in, and the content
that the event should at least contain. Clients do not need to maintain an active presence
during the time these interesting events are taking place. Once it registers an interest it should
be able to recover the missed event from any of the broker nodes in the system.