U.s. system

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  • Immediately after the first drafts of the human genome sequence were reported almost a decade ago, the importance of genomics and functional genomics studies became well recognized across the broad disciplines of biological sciences research.

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  • “Advances in Spacecraft Systems and Orbit Determinations”, discusses the development of new technologies and the limitations of the present technology, used for interplanetary missions. Various experts have contributed to develop the bridge between present limitations and technology growth to overcome the limitations. Key features of this book inform us about the orbit determination techniques based on a smooth research based on astrophysics.

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  • In the aftermath of World War II, the United States enjoyed an easy preeminence in the world economy. Neither the US education system, nor the US tax system, nor American savings habits were criticized on grounds of international competitiveness. During the 1980s, however, Americans took notice of their faults as Japan and the European Union both seemed destined to challenge US preeminence. For different reasons neither Japan nor the European Union prospered during the 1990s but the US economy thrived on a technology boom.

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  • Databases and database systems are an essential component of life in modern society: most of us encounter several activities every day that involve some interaction with a database. For example, if we go to the bank to deposit or withdraw funds, if we make a hotel or airline reservation, if we access a computerized library catalog to search for a bibliographic item, or if we purchase something online—such as a book, toy, or computer— chances are that our activities will involve someone or some computer program accessing a database.

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  • These issues have brought us into contact with an expanded set of policymakers—both here and abroad. Under Dodd- Frank, established regulators like the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and new ones like the Financial Stability Oversight Council are writing rules that aˆect funds and their advisers. And worldwide, policymakers are adopting a more global stance. The Institute has worked to ensure that policy- makers understand the functioning and vital role of our funds. As always, our approach has been highly substantive and constructive.

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  • As I am finishing this book, Science magazine is running a special issue about the sequencing of the macaque genome. It turns out that macaques share about 93 percent of their genes with us, humans. Previously it has been already reported that chimpanzees share about 96 percent of their genes with us. Yes, the macaque is our common ancestor, and it might be expected that, together with the chimps, we continued with our natural selection some 23 million years ago until, some 6 million years ago, we departed from the chimps to continue our further search for better adaptation.

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  • Vibrations occur all around us: in the human body, in mechanical systems and sensors, in buildings and structures, and in vehicles used in the air, on the ground, and in the water. In some cases, these vibrations are undesirable and attempts are made to avoid them or to minimize them; in other cases, vibrations are controlled and put to beneficial uses. Until recently, many of the application areas of vibrations have been largely concerned with objects having one or more of its dimensions being tens of centimeters and larger, a size that we shall denote as the macro scale.

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  • The numbers above have showed us a very positive situation. However, there is some weakness that needs to be pointed out. The teaching method being applied by most school in Vietnam is the old and traditional one in which the teacher is the primary speaker and the learners are the primary listeners. This method creates boredom in learners and encourages passive study habit. On the other hand, teachers are also under high pressure to strictly follow the curricula governed by the Ministry of Education and Training, which are dense and out of date.

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  • In recent years, all western industrialized countries, and to a growing extent even many developed and developing Asian nations, have witnessed a remarkable growth in numbers of older people [1]. Future projections anticipate continued increases, particularly in numbers of individuals who are 85 years and older [1]. Although US statistics have indicated recent declines in disability trends [2], overall numbers of older individuals living with disability and functional dependence are likely to increase given projected increases in life expectancy [3].

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  • It is often said that computers are revolutionizing science and engineering. By using computers we are able to construct complex engineering designs such as space shuttles. We are able to compute the properties of the universe as it was fractions of a second after the big bang. Our ambitions are ever-increasing. We want to create even more complex designs such as better spaceships, cars, medicines, computerized cellular phone systems, and the like. We want to understand deeper aspects of nature. These are just a few examples of computer-supported modeling and simulation.

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  • This volume has two first authors because it is a result of very intensive teamwork between the two authors. We have had three brainstorm meetings, each of approximately one week’s duration. There have been numerous pingpong games (questions–answers–new proposals etc.) on the Internet. All the chapters have major contributions from both of us. We hope that the volume therefore demonstrates a synergistic effect, reflecting the positive teamwork that is behind the volume.

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  • The goal of this paper is to provide computable account for some definite descriptions. To this end, we define in terms of inclusion the notion of distinguishing description and of distinguishable entities introduced by [Dale 89]. These def'mitions allow us to give conditions of wellformedness for incomplete distinguishing descriptions. We also extend the notion of distinguishing description to take into account cases of synonymy and hyponymy. We describe a real application of a guided composition system where this sort of expressions arise. ...

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  • Based on experience with INTELLECT in the areas of quality assurance and customer support, a number of issues in evaluating a natural language database query system, particularly the INTELLECT system, will be discussed. A, I. Corporation offers licenses for customers t o use the INTELLECT software on their computers, to access their databases. We now have a number of customer installations, plus reports from companies that are marketing INTELLECT under agreements with us, so that we can begin to discuss user reactions as possible criteria for evaluating our system. ...

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  • Do natural language database systems still ,~lovide a valuable environment for further work on n~,tural language processing? Are there other systems which provide the same hard environment :for testing, but allow us to explore more interesting natural language questions? In order to answer , o to the first question and yes to the second (the position taken by our panel's chair}, there must be an interesting language problem which is more naturally studied in some other system than in the database system. ...

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  • Research tells us that teachers vary enormously in their ability to improve students’ performance on standardized tests but that many existing teacher evaluation and reward systems do not capture that variation. Armed with this knowledge and with improved access to longitudinal data systems linking teachers to students, reform-minded policymakers are increasingly attempting to base a portion of teachers’ evaluations or pay on student achievement gains.

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  • This paper describes a system that leads us to believe in the feasibility of constructing natural spoken dialogue systems in task-oriented domains. It specifically addresses the issue of robust interpretation of speech in the presence of recognition errors. Robustness is achieved by a combination of statistical error post-correction, syntactically- and semantically-driven robust parsing, and extensive use of the dialogue context.

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  • We use a machine learner trained on a combination of acoustic and contextual features to predict the accuracy of incoming n-best automatic speech recognition (ASR) hypotheses to a spoken dialogue system (SDS). Our novel approach is to use a simple statistical User Simulation (US) for this task, which measures the likelihood that the user would say each hypothesis in the current context. Such US models are now common in machine learning approaches to SDS, are trained on real dialogue data, and are related to theories of “alignment” in psycholinguistics.

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  • The paper discusses a recent extension of the linguistic framework of the Rosetta system. The original framework is elegant and has proved its value in practice, but it also has a number of deficiencies, of which the most salient is the impossibility to assign an explicit structure to the grammars. This may cause problems, especially in a situation where large grammars have to be written by a group of people. The newly developed framework enables us to divide a grammar into subgrammars in a linguistically motivated way and to control explicitly the application of rules in a subgrammar. ...

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  • Bài giảng Real-time Systems - Ngo Lam Trung tập trung trình bày các vấn đề về Real-time systems are around us, embedded into our living environment; what are real-time systems;...

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