Most people can remember where they were when news broke of a worldshattering
event, e.g. the assassination of President Kennedy or the death of
Princess Diana. As testament to a ‘sad life’ as a VAT consultant, I can remember
precisely where I was on 21 June 1988 (in my car and on my way to address a
meeting of the West Wycombe Women’s Institute) when the European Court
of Justice (ECJ) released its judgement against the UK’s zero rated treatment
of commercial property transactions.
The tests and methods given in this section are based mainly on those for milk and dairy products stipulated in European and UK legislation. EC Directive 92/46/EEC  lays down health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat treated milk and milk-based products....
At present more than 62% of all MSW
generated in England is disposed of in
landfills3. However, European and UK
legislation has been put in place to limit the
amount of biodegradable municipal waste
(BMW) sent for disposal in landfills4. The
Landfill Directive also requires waste to be
pre-treated prior to disposal. The diversion of
this material is one of the most significant
challenges facing the management of MSW in
The Food Safety Act, the main provisions of which came into effect on 1 January 1991, provides the basic framework for all food legislation throughout the UK. Its primary aim is to strengthen and update the previous food legislation.....
These are turbulent and troubled times for the UK accounting industry and, more specifically,
for the credibility of the members of its occupational associations who claim to be
‘professionals’ . At the heart of the troubles is the rapidity of change in legislation and the
quickening of competition between major players in the industry.
With increasing global temperatures and the impact of climate change, it is accepted that there needs to
be a reduction in global GHGEs which are contributing to climate change. As part of the UK Climate
Change Act 2008 (www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2008/27) targets were set to cut the total annual
GHGEs in the UK by at least 80% by 2050, with an interim target of a reduction of 34% by 2020 (based
on the 1990 levels). The food system is a major contributor to GHGEs, with the food chain estimated to
account for approximately a fifth of total GHGEs in the UK, the...
The care of a woman and her baby in the immediate hours, days and
weeks following birth can make an enormous difference to their longterm
health and well-being. The content and timing of postnatal care
led by midwives was formalised in the United Kingdom following a
statutory legislation that was first introduced in England in 1902. Then
there were concerns that too many women were dying following birth.
Health and safety is a vast and expanding subject. New regulations seem to come
into force even before the existing legislation is thoroughly adopted by
employers. This report has been written to help employers avoid ﬁnding out
what to do through enforcement action when regulators start asking for
documents and procedures that are not familiar. Every endeavour has been made
to provide information that is absolutely up-to-date. Fortunately in the UK the
regulatory authorities provide for a consultation and lead-in period before the
full adoption of changes.
This new edition has been prompted by the introduction
of new legislation and guidance on the
use of ionising radiation in the UK. In addition to
providing a summary of these new regulations I
have taken the opportunity to update certain
chapters and encompass many of the helpful suggestions
and comments I have received from
reviewers, colleagues and students. In particular I
have increased the number of examples of many
of the pathological conditions so that a range of
appearances is illustrated....