The idea of using ultrasonic waves in medical and engineering fields came from
military applications of sound waves in sonar systems. Sokolov, Firestone, Simons,
and several other researchers are among the ones who studied this high frequency
kind of wave in the first half of twentieth century.
Ultrasonic waves are defined as those with frequencies higher than 20 kHz. The
constant development of data acquisition systems and probes seems to work,
removing the upper limit of the wave frequency that can be acquired.
To be more effective, you have to weave together practical tech-
niques, core “wisdom” concepts, and basic principles of project man-
agement; integrate the “scientific,” technical side of project manage-
ment with the interpersonal and intrapersonal behavioral skills that are
the real keys to effective performance; and balance the right and left
brain to become more effective.
Usually any requirement that the contractor should shoulder all or most
risks arises because the employer prefers to have a fixed financial commit-
ment, or because he has only a limited allocation of funds which he has
no authority to exceed. Some overseas governments will not authorize any
expenditure above the tendered sum. This fixing of the price and placing all
or most of the risks on the contractor can be expected to lead to generally high
The European Union has been at the forefront of
research on the environment and health for many
years. Through successive European Research
Framework Programmes and national science
programmes, we have greatly increased our
understanding of the complex links between
environmental risk factors and their effects on the
health of citizens, various vulnerable sections of
society and the population as a whole.
This accumulated scientific knowledge has helped
shape national and EU policy initiatives designed to
protect our environment and promote human health
throughout the continent.
Lebanon and Russia. Assessments in Mexico
and Tunisia are underway. These countries have
diverse needs and are at various, but generally
early, stages of private sector participation. In
Lebanon, the legislative framework is not yet
in place and current legislation does not allow
private sector participation in the water sector.
Russia has some experience with private sector
participation in the water sector but it has stalled
due to legislative obstacles. The legislative
framework is now under amendment.
In November 1999, the Department of Dental Surgery at Chubu National Hospital,
National Institute of Longevity Science (Now: National Center for Geriatrics and
Gerontologyʣ, established the first oral care outpatient clinic in the nation. We have instructed
many people in methods of systematic oral care, and the service has earned a good reputation.