We present and evaluate a new model for Natural Language Generation (NLG) in Spoken Dialogue Systems, based on statistical planning, given noisy feedback from the current generation context (e.g. a user and a surface realiser). We study its use in a standard NLG problem: how to present information (in this case a set of search results) to users, given the complex tradeoffs between utterance length, amount of information conveyed, and cognitive load. We set these trade-offs by analysing existing MATCH data.
In this paper the functional uncertainty machinery in L F G is compared with the treatment of long distance dependencies in TAG. It is shown that the functional uncertainty machinery is redundant in TAG, i.e.,what functional uncertainty accomplishes for L F G follows f~om the T A G formalism itself and some aspects of the linguistic theory instantiated in TAG. It is also shown that the analyses provided by the functional uncertainty machinery can be obtained without requiring power beyond mildly context-sensitive grammars.
In a world where ownership is divorced from control, characterised by economic and geo-political uncertainty, our companion text Portfolio Theory and Financial Analyses (PTFA henceforth) began with the following question. We then observed that if investors are rational and capital markets are efficient with a large number of constituents,economic variables (such as share prices and returns) should be random, which simplifies matters.
January 2012 saw the completion of the U.S. Army’s Chemical Materials
Agency’s (CMA’s) task to destroy 90 percent of the nation’s stockpile of chemical
weapons. CMA completed destruction of the chemical agents and associated munitions
stored at six of eight continental U.S. storage facilities as well as chemical weapons
deployed overseas, which were transported to Johnston Atoll, southwest of Hawaii, and
demilitarized there. The remaining 10 percent of the nation’s chemical weapons stockpile
is stored at two remaining continental U.S.
Quantitative methods - including performance testing,
indoor air pollution monitoring and questionnaires - can
track changes in "quantifiables" and are a means of
objectively comparing one intervention against another.
Qualitative methods, on the other hand, help reveal the
perspectives of individuals or communities and provide
important contextual data to explain the results of quantitative
analyses. They include in-depth, open-ended interviews,
direct observations of behaviours and participatory methods.
Sample size, i.e.
Fang et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:237 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/237
Measurement of the extinction coefficients of magnetic fluids
Xiaopeng Fang, Yimin Xuan*, Qiang Li
Abstract A novel spectral transmittance approach for measuring the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluids is proposed. The measuring principle and accuracy of the approach are analysed. Experiments are conducted to measure the extinction coefficient of magnetic fluids with different particle volume fractions.
This book examines the intersection of WTO trade liberalisation rules and
domestic health protection, a subject that is of considerable interest to
those concerned that the WTO impinges on national regulatory auto-
nomy. In analysing the tension between health protection and trade liber-
alisation, the book focuses on the way in which this tension is (or is not)
resolved through the dispute resolution process.
In 2002, methodological issues around time series analyses of air pollution and health attracted
the attention of the scienti¯c community, policy makers, the press, and the diverse stakeholders con-
cerned with air pollution.
Our paper offers two contributions to the literature: First, we investigate RNDs for the
German stock market, which is the largest stock market in the euro area. Second, we evaluate
whether a comprehensive set of factors can explain the changes in the uncertainty about future
equity prices. Hence, we analyse which types of information affect the perceptions about
future stock market movements as contained in DAX option prices.