Xem 1-20 trên 33 kết quả Uncertainty relations
  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article New Inequalities and Uncertainty Relations on Linear Canonical Transform Revisit

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  • Open-ended spoken interactions are typically characterised by both structural complexity and high levels of uncertainty, making dialogue management in such settings a particularly challenging problem. Traditional approaches have focused on providing theoretical accounts for either the uncertainty or the complexity of spoken dialogue, but rarely considered the two issues simultaneously.

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  • One of the most prominent and urgent problems in international governance is how the different branches and norms of international law interact, and what to do in the event of conflict. With no single ‘international legislator’and a multitude of states, international organisations and tribunals making and enforcing the law, the international legal system is decentralised.

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  • In this chapter we discuss relations between information theory and statistical mechanics. We show that the canonical and grand canonical distributions can be obtained from Shannon’s principle of maximum uncertainty [1, 2, 3]. Moreover, the time evolution of the entropy of an isolated system and the H theorem are discussed.

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  • This book was conceived as a result of many years research with students and postdocs in molecular simulation, and shaped over several courses on the subject given at the University of Groningen, the Eidgen¨ossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Z¨urich, the University of Cambridge, UK, the University of Rome (La Sapienza), and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

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  • Re-engaging with the Pure Theory of Law developed by Hans Kelsen and the other members of the Viennese School of Jurisprudence, this book looks at the causes and manifestations of uncertainty in international law. It considers both epistemological uncertainty as to whether we can accurately perceive norms in international law, and ontological problems which occur inter alia where two or more norms conflict.

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  • After graduation, I worked as a communications advisor at Inland Revenue for six years. As a communications advisor in a large and complex organisation, no one day was ever the same. I worked on KiwiSaver (work-based savings initiative); legislative, tax technical and social policy projects; and business support communications. This involved communication risk management, communications planning, brand management and media, government and general public relations.

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  • Global GDP growth has lost steam in the course of 2012, and leading indicators point to further weakness in the remainder of this year. Among the largest non-EU advanced economies, Japan's post-disaster recovery is pausing, while in the US growth appears to be gradually firming after a protracted period of subdued performance. However, the uncertainty related to the path of US fiscal policy over the coming months remains high. At the same time, many emerging market economies have recently been moving towards a more moderate rate of economic expansion, which in part reflects...

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  • From the epidemiological data (fixed base line increment per 10 µg/m3 PM10 per 1 million inhabitant) on the one hand and the average exposure level of the population on the other hand, the number of health outcomes can be determined. These calculations may be done for the current exposure to particulate matter as well as for a hypothetical situation without road traffic-related air pollution. The difference between the two results corresponds to the number of morbidity and mortality cases attributable to road traffic-related air pollution.

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  • Jurisdictional Uncertainty. This is a vaguely defined term that refers to weaknesses in property rights and contract-enforcing institutions. The term was coined by Arida, Bacha, and Lara-Resende (2004) who describe it as some form of anticreditor bias, the risk of changing the value of contracts before or at the moment of their execution, and the risk of an unfavorable interpretation of contracts in case of a court ruling.

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  • The relational model is one of many ways of modeling data from the real world. The modeling process starts with the identification of the things in the real world that you are modeling. These real world things are called entities. If you were creating a database to catalog your music library, the entities would be things like compact disc, song, band, record label, and so on. Entities do not need to be tangible things; they can also be conceptual things like a genre or a concert.

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  • Reproductive Health (RH) is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being (not merely the absence of disease and infirmity) in all matters relating to the reproduc- tive system and its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.

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  • CHAPTER OUTLINE CASE 1 Timex and the Electronic Revolution CASE 2 Eastman Kodak and Digital Photography Introduction New Developments Affecting Competitive Advantage New Technology New Distribution Channels Economic Shifts Changes in Related or Neighboring Industries Government Regulation Response Options Prospecting Defending Harvesting Generic Change Situations Magnitude of Threat Ability to Adjust Common Change Situations Uncertainty Impact of Environmental Development Ability to Adjust Ethical Dimension Risk Preference Return Preference Summary Exercises and Discussion Questions ...

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  • Decision theory in economics, psychology, philosophy, mathematics, and statistics is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. It is closely related to the field of game theory as to interactions of agents with at least partially conflicting interests whose decisions affect each other.

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  • Economic literature often discusses that in the area of access to finance for SMEs, a market imperfection/failure is not only present during a deep recession but also on an ongoing basis as a fundamental structural issue. The reasons for the market failure relate to insufficient supply of capital (debt or equity) and inadequacies on the demand side.

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  • The most discussed effect of global warming is the increase of temperatures, although this increase will not be homogeneous through the seasons, with the winters expected to warm up significantly more than the summers. In addition, changes in precipitation are also expected that could lead to increase or decrease of rainfall, snowfall and other water-related events. Finally, a change in the frequency and intensity of storm events could be possible, although this is probably the most uncertain of the effects of global warming.

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  • The purpose of this study is to examine a current land development decision within a one-shot decision framework. The main contributions of this study are as follows. A private real estate investment decision model is proposed within a one-shot decision framework, which is an innovative study on analyzing real estate investment problems from an economic viewpoint by using tools from the possibility theory. The analysis in this paper demonstrates the relation between the amount of uncertainty and the investment scale for different types of personal investors.

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  • Arts-related real estate markets have paradoxical entry barriers and advantages. There are barriers inherent in the uncertainty of demand, zoning issues and the costs of retrofitting old systems. At the same time, entry barriers are lowered because the space demand is flexible and often requires minimal high-end fixtures and adaptations. Art-making, performance, craft production and exhibition spaces attract users who want to adapt and re-create space in flexible ways.

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  • When we suffer personally, and when we encounter the suffering of another person, we are confronted with many questions. A taken-forgranted and apparently robust future now jeopardized leaves in its place a hollow of uncertainty and fragility. Painfully unsettling, suffering seems to call forth a natural human proclivity to distance oneself from the specter of vulnerability. Understandably there is a tendency for healthcare professionals to protect ourselves from the ravages of suffering encountered in the lives of the persons we care for.

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  • When consumers buy products like for instance food products, they make choices by comparing price and quality among alternatives|e.g. a standard product and an animal-welfare oriented variant. The choice between product variants is influenced by the available information channels and the related uncertainty of information concerning di erent quality characteristics.

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