The market for lemons quality uncertainty and mechanism present about the model with automobiles as an example; example and application; counteracting institutions; conclusion of The market for lemons quality uncertainty and mechanism.
THE EFFECTS OF MACROECONOMIC UNCERTAINTY ON IRREVERSIBLE INVESTMENT Peer group and, by extension, average student
performance are endogenous to unobserved determinants of housing prices. One
estimation strategy that accommodates this endogeneity is that taken by Bayer, McMillan,
and Reuben (2002), who estimate a structural model for housing prices and community
composition in San Francisco.
Water-resource managers have long strived to meet their goals of system reliability and environmental protection in the face of many uncertainties, including demographic and economic forecasts, intrinsic weather variability, and short-term climate change induced by El Ni
In spoken dialogue systems, Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) provide a formal framework for making dialogue management decisions under uncertainty, but efﬁciency and interpretability considerations mean that most current statistical dialogue managers are only MDPs. These MDP systems encode uncertainty explicitly in a single state representation.
This paper proposes the use of uncertainty reduction in machine learning methods such as co-training and bilingual bootstrapping, which are referred to, in a general term, as ‘collaborative bootstrapping’. The paper indicates that uncertainty reduction is an important factor for enhancing the performance of collaborative bootstrapping.
We show that feature logic extended by functional uncertainty is decidable, even if one admits cyclic descriptions. We present an algorithm, which solves feature descriptions containing functional uncertainty in two phases, both phases using a set of deterministic and non-deterministic rewrite rules. We then compare our algorithm with the one of Kaplan and Maxwell, that does not cover cyclic feature descriptions. 1 Introduction the form x L y , where L is a finite description of a regular language of feature paths. A constraint x L y holds if there is a path w E L such that z...
In this paper the functional uncertainty machinery in L F G is compared with the treatment of long distance dependencies in TAG. It is shown that the functional uncertainty machinery is redundant in TAG, i.e.,what functional uncertainty accomplishes for L F G follows f~om the T A G formalism itself and some aspects of the linguistic theory instantiated in TAG. It is also shown that the analyses provided by the functional uncertainty machinery can be obtained without requiring power beyond mildly context-sensitive grammars.
It is widely believed that changes in exchange rates have important implications for financial decision-making and for the profitability of firms. One of the central motivations for the creation of the euro was to eliminate exchange rate risk to enable European firms to operate free from the uncertainties of changes in relative prices
resulting from exchange rate movements. At the macro level, there is evidence that the creation of such currency unions results in a dramatic increase in bilateral trade (Frankel and Rose, 2002)....
Many important decisions are based on the results of chemical quantitative analysis; the results are used, for
example, to estimate yields, to check materials against specifications or statutory limits, or to estimate
monetary value. Whenever decisions are based on analytical results, it is important to have some indication
of the quality of the results, that is, the extent to which they can be relied on for the purpose in hand.
In this chapter we discuss relations between information theory and statistical
mechanics. We show that the canonical and grand canonical distributions
can be obtained from Shannon’s principle of maximum uncertainty [1, 2, 3].
Moreover, the time evolution of the entropy of an isolated system and the H
theorem are discussed.
This book is dedicated to the many students we have taught over the years,
whose thought-provoking questions led us to rethink what we had learned as
graduate students. For all such questioning minds, we offer the research efforts
of scholars around the world who have come to the conclusion that uncertainty
can be decomposed into a risk component and a reward component; that all
uncertainty is not bad.
The recent credit crisis in the United States ushered in a new era
of uncertainty. In some ways it was just another bubble in a long
line of fi nancial manias. Like any other bubble, it was born out of
an extended period of easy money that fueled prosperity, engendered
speculation, and ended in a spectacular crash. In some very
important ways, however, the lingering impacts are different than
the bubbles of recent memory.
Re-engaging with the Pure Theory of Law developed by Hans Kelsen and the
other members of the Viennese School of Jurisprudence, this book looks at the
causes and manifestations of uncertainty in international law. It considers both
epistemological uncertainty as to whether we can accurately perceive norms in
international law, and ontological problems which occur inter alia where two or
more norms conﬂict.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Coping with disassembly yield uncertainty in remanufacturing using sensor embedded products
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Recognizing Uncertainty in Speech
Heather Pon-Barry and Stuart M. Shieber
Analytic number theorists usually seek to show that sequences which appear naturally in arithmetic are “well-distributed” in some appropriate sense. In various discrepancy problems, combinatorics researchers have analyzed limitations to equidistribution, as have Fourier analysts when working with the “uncertainty principle”. In this article we ﬁnd that these ideas have a natural setting in the analysis of distributions of sequences in analytic number theory, formulating a general principle, and giving several examples. ...
Pursuant to a request by the Department of Defense, the National
Research Council (NRC) convened a study committee under the
auspices of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board
(CSTB) to assess the nature of the U.S. national investment in software
research and, in particular, to consider ways to enhance the knowledge and
human resource base needed to design, produce, and employ software-
intensive systems for tomorrow’s weapons and operations systems.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Radar Sensor Networks: Algorithms for Waveform Design and Diversity with Application to ATR with Delay-Doppler Uncertainty