Difficulty in addressing contamination in low permeability soils may be
alleviated to some degree by controlled pneumatic or hydraulic fracturing of the
soil. However, engineered hydraulic fractures generally cannot be spaced more
closely than about 5 feet, which means that chemical oxidants must still penetrate a
substantial thickness of low permeability soil to come into contact with the
contamination. Deep soil mixing with large diameter drill augers is the most
effective method currently available to increase contact between adsorbed
contaminants and the oxidants.
Dynamicity of participants: Some P2P systems, such as , assume a ﬁxed set of nodes in the system. However,
one of the greatest potential strengths of P2P systems is when they eschew reliance on dedicated infrastructure and
allow peers to leave the system at will. Even under these conditions, participants typically have broadly varying
availability characteristics. Some peers are akin to servers: their membership in the system stays largely static. Others
have much more dynamic membership, joining and leaving the system at will.
Carbon offsets are an innovative tool for allowing companies and individuals to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions beyond what they can easily achieve on their own. In the past
two years, interest in carbon offsets has grown dramatically as companies and concerned
consumers have sought ways to help mitigate climate change. However, the global
market for voluntary carbon offsets is currently unregulated, which has led to growing
concerns about whether buyers are really getting what they are paying for.
Lenne, 1996) and to decrease
damage by pests and pathogens (Cantelo & Sanford, 1984). In some crops (e.g. rice) this is
applied on a large scale to maximize yield by minimizing damage by pathogens (Zhu et al.,
2000). Information on genetic diversity and population structure also assists plant breeding
in the selection of parents for crossing, providing a more rational basis for expanding the
gene pool, and for identifying materials that harbor genes of value for plant improvement.
The annual agriculture appropriations bill traditionally makes two separate appropriations for the
federal crop insurance program. It provides discretionary funding for the salaries and expenses of
the RMA. It also provides “such sums as are necessary” for the Federal Crop Insurance Fund,
which finances all other expenses of the program, including premium subsidies, indemnity
payments, and reimbursements to the private insurance companies.
Government costs for crop insurance have increased substantially in recent years. After ranging
between $2.1 and $3.
The SRA also defines risk-sharing between the government and private insurance companies.
Under the SRA, insurance companies may transfer some liability associated with riskier policies
to the government and retain profits/losses from less risky policies.
This transfer of risk is
accomplished through a set of reinsurance funds maintained by FCIC. Within 30 days of the sales
closing dates for each crop, companies allocate each policy they sell to one of two funds that are
maintained for each company by state: Assigned Risk or Commercial. (The previous SRA had
The final risk-sharing component of the SRA is the “net book quota share,” defined as the
proportion of a company’s overall gain or loss over its entire “book of business” that is ceded to
the government after all other reinsurance provisions in the SRA have been applied. Under the
SRA, companies must cede a 6.5% share of their cumulative underwriting gains/losses to the
government. During years in which there are underwriting gains, 1.5% of this share is distributed
back to companies that sell and service policyholders in 17 underserved states.
Notwithstanding that the AIFM must be able to provide both functions in order to be authorised, it
may choose to delegate the portfolio management and/or the risk management function. In such cas-
es, and as set out above, the delegation of these functions should comply with the rules set out under
Article 20 of the AIFMD and the relevant Level 2 measures. Therefore, the liability of the AIFM will
not be affected by the fact that the AIFM has delegated the portfolio management and/or risk man-
agement functions to a third party, or by any further sub-delegation.
In 1992, the first United Nations Conference on Sustainable
Development, popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit, was convened
in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to address the state of the environment and
sustainable development. The Earth Summit yielded several important
agreements including “Agenda 21”, a plan of action adopted by over
178 governments to address human impacts on the environment at
local, national and global levels, and key treaties on climate change,
desertification and biodiversity.
Building engineering physics emerged during the latter part of the 20th
Century, at the interface between three disciplines: building services
engineering, applied physics and building construction engineering. Building
services engineering is the design of mechanical and electrical systems to
maintain internal environmental conditions that enable occupants to be
comfortable and achieve their maximum performance potential.
Prior to the 2010 renegotiation of the SRA, some observers argued that the reimbursement rate
should be pegged to something other than premium value, such as the number of policies sold, to
better reflect actual costs and to help reduce federal expenditures. If premiums are actuarially
sound, the administrative costs of writing a policy are likely not proportional to the value of the
policy (e.g., whether 10 acres or 1,000 acres, or $3 per bushel or $9 per bushel).
The treaty, called the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, is a
major achievement. It starts by immediately targeting 12 particularly toxic POPs for reduc-
tion and eventual elimination. More importantly, it sets up a system for tackling additional
chemicals identified as unacceptably hazardous. It recognizes that a special effort may
sometimes be needed to phase out certain chemicals for certain uses and seeks to ensure that
this effort is made. It also channels resources into cleaning up the existing stockpiles and
dumps of POPs that litter the world’s landscape.
The generation of the list of industry sources was based on an analysis of toxic pollutants found at the
source sites and a projection of their related human health impacts. The list sets out the most significant
industry sectors based on these toxic pollutants, ranked by estimated health impacts. A short discussion of
some of the major pollutants found at the sites is presented below, included is a description of the toxic
pollutant and a discussion of its uses and health impacts.
The level of corporate profits increased in FY 2011,
but at a slower pace than in the previous fiscal year. Federal spending grew and tax receipts
increased in FY 2011, which resulted in the Federal unified budget deficit remaining essentially
flat at $1.3 trillion. However, the deficit narrowed as a share of GDP to 8.7 percent from 9.0
percent in FY 2010. The economy continued to receive significant support during the fiscal year
by a wide variety of measures implemented under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
of 2009 (Recovery Act or ARRA). It was also...
As indicated above, in some instances, the Commissioner may decide to utilise
powers conferred under section 24 of the Data Protection Acts and order an
inspection team comprised of authorised officers to arrive unannounced at the
premises of a particular data controller or data processor. In such cases, authorised
officers will carry official photo identification and a signed letter from the
Commissioner on logo-headed paper.
Another option to consider when selling your car is
word of mouth. Car collecting represents a relatively
tight community, and the interconnections between its
members can be very useful. When it comes time to sell
your car, tell friends and other collectors with a shared
interest that it’s for sale. Part of the magic of the collec-
tor car hobby is that if you tell fellow enthusiasts
you’re selling your car, they’ll tell their friends who
share the same interests and so on. It’s not unusual for
a car to sell on word of mouth alone when the informa-
The concept of aesthetic labour is partly seen from the perspective of ethics. There may
be strictly applied selection criteria for the recruitment and selection of new employees. For an
appointments panel such a situation could cause conflict between organisational requirements
and personal private views on what is moral or fair.
The ethical problem concerns the Human Resource manager, who wishes to appoint
someone, but who needs professional reasons for appointing a less attractive person.
In the Arab Region, digital migration is still in its very early years, but nevertheless
is being driven by the high proportion of young demographic in many Arab
countries. With 55% of the Arab Region population under the age of 252
segment is expected to drive the growth of digital media. Since international
players have been experimenting with online content and business models for
some time, the Arab Region now has the opportunity to learn from the mistakes
and successes of the European, North American and Asian media markets to
really drive growth....
In this paper, we identify the effect of preschool exposure to
television on adolescent cognitive skills by exploiting variation in
the timing of television’s introduction to U.S. cities.
2 Most cities
ﬁrst received television between the early 1940s and the mid-
1950s. The exact timing was affected by a number of exogenous
events, most notably a four-year freeze on licensing prompted by
problems with the allocation of broadcast spectrum across cities.
Once it was introduced, television was adopted rapidly by fami-
lies with children.
Addressing the options for domestic sustainable agriculture policies in developing countries, it is
generally observed that the world’s agriculture trade system is progressively moving towards an
open-market system, a process which is desirable from both a trade as well as a sustainable
development point of view.