Understanding biology

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  • Historically rich in novel, subtle, often controversial ideas, Molecular Bi- ology has lately become heir to a huge legacy of standardized data in the form of polynucleotide and polypeptide sequences. Fred Sanger received two, well deserved Nobel Prizes for his seminal role in developing the basic technology needed for this reduction of core biological information to one linear dimension.

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  • As you worked your way through high school, or otherwise worked to prepare yourself for college, you were probably unaware that an information explosion was taking place in the field of biology. This explosion, brought on by advances in biotechnology and communicated by faster, more powerful computers, has allowed scientists to gather data more quickly and disseminate data to colleagues in the global scientific community with the click of a mouse.

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  • Creating institutions to meet the challenge of sustainability is arguably the most important task confronting society; it is also dauntingly complex. Ecological, economic, and social elements all play a role, but despite ongoing efforts, researchers have yet to succeed in integrating the various disciplines in a way that gives adequate representation to the insights of each.Panarchy, a term devised to describe evolving hierarchical systems with multiple interrelated elements, offers an important new framework for understanding and resolving this dilemma.

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  • Cell biology studies the structural and physiological properties of cells, including their behaviors, interactions, and environment. This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for single-celled organisms such as bacteria as well as the specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans. Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology....

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  • As a scientist who has worked for more than 40 years to find cures for infectious disease, I find the idea that terrorists would use biological agents as a weapon to be anathema. It violates the fundamental values of the life sciences that I and my colleagues hold dear: that science is a vital tool for improving life and the health of our planet and enhancing our understanding of the natural world. My own work has focused on cholera, a disease responsible for the death of thousands of people around the world every year.

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  • Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level.[35] This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly with genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated.

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  • The science of vascular biology has emerged and expanded rapidly over the past 25 years. Research in this area has increased understanding of a wide range of clinical conditions. This book provides a broad overview of the Weld for both specialist and newcomer to the Weld, and concise resource for the non-specialist. The multidisciplinary team of contributors covers topics ranging from normal and pathological aspects of endothelial cell function to the role of the vasculature in pregnancy, hypertension and atherosclerosis....

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  • Antiangiogenic Therapy Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor angiogenesis may provide unique opportunities for cancer treatment. Acquired drug resistance of tumor cells due to their high intrinsic mutation rate is a major cause of treatment failure in human cancers. ECs comprising the tumor vasculature are genetically stable and do not share genetic changes with tumor cells; the EC apoptosis pathways are therefore intact.

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  • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale.

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  • Since the early 1990s, the United States has been concerned about the diversion of expertise and sensitive information from the nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons complexes of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This documented briefing offers an assessment of the threat of diversion from the FSU and examine

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  • Introductory Chapter Tissue Regeneration – A Clinical Science Whose Time Has Come 1 Jamie Davies Understanding and Manipulating Endogeneous Healing of Tissues 11 The Role of Physical Factors in Cell Differentiation, Tissue Repair and Regeneration 13 Monica Monici and Francesca Cialdai Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Nerve Repair 35 Jiamou Li, Hua Zhang and Cong Ren Disinfection of Human Tissues in Orthopedic Surgical Oncology by High Hydrostatic Pressure Peter Diehl, Johannes Schauwecker,...

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  • The recent discovery of the genetic causes for Parkinson’s disease (PD) is fruitful; however, the continuing revelation of PD-related genes is rapidly outpacing the functional characterization of the gene products. Although the discovery of multiple PD-related genes places PD as one of the most complex multigenetic diseases of the brain, it will undoubtedly facilitate the unfolding of a central pathogenic pathway and an understanding of the eti-ology of PD.

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  • Hepatitis C virus is a human pathogen responsible for liver diseases includ-ing acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Its high prevalence, the absence of a prophylactic vaccine and the poor effi-ciency of current therapies are huge medical problems. Since the discovery of the hepatitis C virus, our knowledge of its biology has been largely punctuated by the development of original models of research.

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  • Chapter 17 - From gene to protein. This chapter describe the contributions made by Garrod, Beadle, and Tatum to our understanding of the relationship between genes and enzymes; briefly explain how information flows from gene to protein; compare transcription and translation in bacteria and eukaryotes; explain what it means to say that the genetic code is redundant and unambiguous;...

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  • Chapter 25 - The history of life on earth. This chapter define radiometric dating, serial endosymbiosis, Pangaea, snowball Earth, exaptation, heterochrony, and paedomorphosis; describe the contributions made by Oparin, Haldane, Miller, and Urey toward understanding the origin of organic molecules; explain why RNA, not DNA, was likely the first genetic material;...

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  • Chapter 8 - Major shifts in bacterial transcription. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Sigma factor switching, the RNA polymerase encoded in phage T7, infection of E. coli by phage λ,...and another contents.

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  • The objectives of this chapter are to the chemistry of life. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: What are the chemical elements that make up living organisms? How do atoms bond to form molecules? How do atoms change partners in chemical reactions? What properties of water make it so important in biology?

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  • Chapter 3 - Macromolecules and the origin of life. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What kinds of molecules characterize living things? What are the chemical structures and functions of proteins? What are the chemical structures and functions of carbohydrates? What are the chemical structures and functions of lipids? What are the chemical structures and functions of nucleic acids? How did life on earth begin?

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  • Lecture Biology - Chapter 6 provides knowledge of energy, enzymes, and metabolism. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What physical principles underlie biological energy transformations? What is the role of ATP in biochemical energetics? What are enzymes? How do enzymes work? How do enzymes work?

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  • Lecture Biology - Chapter 10: Genetics: Mendel and beyond. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What are the Mendelian Laws of inheritance? how do alleles interact? How do genes interact? What is the relationship between genes and chromosomes? What are the effects of genes outside the nucleus?

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