Understanding complex

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  • Creating institutions to meet the challenge of sustainability is arguably the most important task confronting society; it is also dauntingly complex. Ecological, economic, and social elements all play a role, but despite ongoing efforts, researchers have yet to succeed in integrating the various disciplines in a way that gives adequate representation to the insights of each.Panarchy, a term devised to describe evolving hierarchical systems with multiple interrelated elements, offers an important new framework for understanding and resolving this dilemma.

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  • It seems like teaching about games should be easy. After all, students enjoy engaging with course content and have extensive experience with videogames. However, games education can be surprisingly complex. This book explores ludoliteracy, or the question of what it means to understand games, by looking at the challenges and

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  • Scientific perception of nature relies on a process of transforming data to information, and then information into understanding. Data consist of observations and measurements and information is data organized according to some ontology, i.e. some set of assumptions about what entities exist and how they should be classified. Understanding is a model in the investigator’s mind that describes how the entities relate to each other, a model created in the investigator’s mind as a result of thinking.

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  • This paper explores the role of information retrieval in answering “relationship” questions, a new class complex information needs formally introduced in TREC 2005. Since information retrieval is often an integral component of many question answering strategies, it is important to understand the impact of different termbased techniques.

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  • Hierarchical HMM (HHMM) parsers make promising cognitive models: while they use a bounded model of working memory and pursue incremental hypotheses in parallel, they still achieve parsing accuracies competitive with chart-based techniques. This paper aims to validate that a right-corner HHMM parser is also able to produce complexity metrics, which quantify a reader’s incremental difficulty in understanding a sentence.

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  • As natural language understanding research advances towards deeper knowledge modeling, the tasks become more and more complex: we are interested in more nuanced word characteristics, more linguistic properties, deeper semantic and syntactic features. One such example, explored in this article, is the mention detection and recognition task in the Automatic Content Extraction project, with the goal of identifying named, nominal or pronominal references to real-world entities—mentions— and labeling them with three types of information: entity type, entity subtype and mention type. ...

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  • The Natural Language Understanding Engine Test Environment (ETE) is a GUI software tool that aids in the development and maintenance of large, modular, natural language understanding (NLU) systems. Natural language understanding systems are composed of modules (such as partof-speech taggers, parsers and semantic analyzers) which are difficult to test individually because of the complexity of their output data structures.

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  • Human understanding of spoken language appears to integrate the use of contextual expectations with acoustic level perception in a tightly-coupled, sequential fashion. Yet computer speech understanding systems typically pass the transcript produced by a speech recognizer into a natural language parser with no integration of acoustic and grammatical constraints. One reason for this is the complexity of implementing that integration.

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  • This paper examines the use of clue words in argument dialogues. These are special words and phrases directly indicating the structure of the argument to the hearer. Two main conclusions are drawn: I) clue words can occur in conjunction with coherent transmissions, to reduce processing of the hearer 2) clue words must occur with more complex forms of transmission, to facilitate recognition of the argument structure. Interpretation rules to process clues are proposed.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'recent advances in document recognition and understanding edited by minoru mori.recent advances', công nghệ thông tin, kỹ thuật lập trình phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • This is the first book containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions. All the following books will have this book as their background. Even if I have tried to be careful about this text, it is impossible to avoid errors, in particular in the first edition. It is my hope that the reader will show some understanding of my situation.

    pdf84p tuanloc_do 03-12-2012 20 1   Download

  • In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students . The author will help you to understand the meaning and function of mathematical concepts. The best way to learn it, is by doing it, the exercises in this book will help you do just that.

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  • This book is intended to be a complete and useful reference to the Unified Model- ing Language (UML) for the developer, architect, project manager, system engi- neer, programmer, analyst, contracting officer, customer, and anyone else who needs to specify, design, build, or understand complex software systems. It pro- vides a full reference to the concepts and constructs of UML, including their se- mantics, syntax, notation, and purpose. It is organized to be a convenient but thorough reference for the working professional developer.

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  • As the world grapples with the massive effects of climate change and global warming, the need to understand the embedded issues associated with these complex ecological transformations becomes clear. PolicyLink commissioned Understanding Climate Change: An Equitable Framework to contribute to a deeper understanding of the issues and to encourage everyone to participate in the discussion and to weigh in on proposed solutions.

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  • This is a very different risk assessment book. Many risk assessment books target risk assessment practitioners exclusively, providing them with greater technical insights and complex methodologies to aid in professional practice. Other risk assessment books provide brief overviews of the risk assessment process and technical inputs for a lay audience.

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  • Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as direct current (DC), which is electricity °owing in a constant direction, and/or possessing a voltage with constant polarity. DC is the kind of electricity made by a battery (with de¯nite positive and negative terminals), or the kind of charge generated by rubbing certain types of materials against each other. As useful and as easy to understand as DC is, it is not the only \kind" of electricity in use.

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  • I wrote this text for a one semester course at the sophomore-junior level. Our experience with students taking our junior physics courses is that even if they’ve had the mathematical prerequisites, they usually need more experience using the mathematics to handle it efficiently and to possess usable intuition about the processes involved. If you’ve seen infinite series in a calculus course, you may have no idea that they’re good for anything.

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  • The aims outlined here are completely interdependent. Students cannot be taught concepts, skills and processes unless they find their encounters with language meaningful. Students will not respect language and their use of it unless they feel it contributes to their sense of understanding of the world. In trying to achieve these objectives it is vital that teachers introduce students to texts which create a meaningful context and invite dialogue and interaction.

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  • The present volume studies the application of concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to a variety of research topics. Emphasis is on the Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle and applications to Geosphere-Biosphere couplings. Written by leading researchers from a wide range of backgrounds, the book presents a first coherent account of an emerging field at the interface of thermodynamics, geophysics and life sciences.

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  • During my career, some 35 years, there has been a growing realization that the goal of successful nuclear waste management and the final disposal of long-lived radionuclides can only be attained by a thorough understanding of the behavior of key, technogenic radionuclides in the environment. Within a nuclear reactor, these radionuclides are created by fission, neutron capture and subsequent beta-decay reactions on actinides, mainly 238 U, and by activation nuclear reactions.

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