Xem 1-20 trên 52 kết quả Understanding lip
  • The evidence connecting social sustainability with profit and value building is presented in the second section and supports research the author presented at a previous PRRES conference (Kimmet 2006). This is vital support for justifying the understanding, and ultimately measuring, the social sustainability component of real estate. Finally, conclusions about capitalising on redefined sustainable real estate that values social aspects equally with economic and environmental components are drawn. ...

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  • The industrial discharge carries various types of contaminants to the river, lake and groundwater. The quality of freshwater is very important as it is highly consumed by human for drinking, bathing, irrigation and etc. The presence of contaminants from industrial contaminant within the water may reduce the yield of crops and the growth of plant and it will harmful to the aquatic living organism too.

    pdf242p lulanphuong 30-03-2012 30 6   Download

  • The past fifty years have witnessed two simultaneous and accelerating trends: an explosive growth in population and a steep increase in resource depletion and environmental degradation. These trends have fueled the debate on the link between population and environment that began 150 years earlier, when Malthus voiced his concern about the ability of the earth and its finite resources to feed an exponentially growing population.

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  • In this paper we develop a contingent valuation model for zero-coupon bonds with de- fault. In order to emphasize the role of maturity time and place of the lender’s claim in the hierarchy of debt of a Þrm, we consider a Þrm that issues two bonds with different ma- turities and different seniorage. The model allows us to analyze the implications of both debt renegotiation and capital structure of a Þrm on the prices of bonds.

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  • For new information to be valuable it must, of course, actually be new information. If new cost estimation or accounting procedures simply confirm existing beliefs, they have little likelihood of contributing to changes in decision-making, and thus little likelihood of adding value. Environmental accounting techniques will be most valuable when they correct beliefs that are biased or when they focus on issues subject to high degrees of uncertainty. A focus in much of the environmental accounting literature is on the failure to quantify environmental benefits and costs.

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  • For instance, based on the pure management fee model described above, a fund with a 1.5% management fee and fixed expenses of $600,000 would break even at $40 mil- lion in AUM. By decreasing fixed expenses by $60,000, or 10%, the fund’s breakeven AUM drops by $4 million to $36 million. Stated differently, $15,000 in fixed expenses equates to $1 million in AUM.

    pdf15p quaivatdo 18-11-2012 26 5   Download

  • Eventually investment banks developed a clear policy line in their newsletters, and some proposed changes to the Pact along these lines. For example, Morgan Stanley’s (07/11/02) views were in line with the ECB, arguing that the Pact is not fundamentally flawed, but a valuable compromise, which should be kept as a framework for fiscal policies in EMU. Countries not complying with the Pact should not try to change the rules since it is their responsibility that they have not done enough to consolidate their public finances in good times.

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  • Specifically, it can be used to process significant damage at this time they occur. Sound emission was used as a method of evaluating formal structure since early 1980. Formalized Sound emission assessment methods are given today be the result of a significant number of failures of fiber reinforced structure coincides (FRP) vessels took place in the past decade (Fowler and Gray, 1979; Fowler et al, , 1989).

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  • A primary justification for government intervention has been the failure of private agricultural insurance markets (see, for example, Appel, Lord, and Harrington, 1999; Hazell, Pomerada, and Valdez, 1986; Goodwin and Smith, 1995). In a 1922 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) bulletin, Valgren describes the disastrous experiences of fire insurance companies that offered crop insurance in the Dakotas and Montana in 1917 and the early 1920s. Severe droughts caused widespread crop losses in those states.

    pdf0p quaivatxanh 29-11-2012 29 4   Download

  • The 'how to' approaches are typified by their 'wealth pyramiding' approach. The 'how to get rich' formulae these authors provide in their self-labelled 'best seller' texts typically portray real estate as the investor's best opportunity to 'create personal wealth'. The key element of this approach is to borrrow heavily to buy as many properties as possible. These properties are then re-mortgaged to draw on equity build-up to provide the deposit for the next investment property. The implicit assumption of these authors is of a continuing strong growth in property values.

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  • Given the large and increasing demand for organic foodstuffs in the UK and elsewhere, an up-to-date objective independent statement on the nutrient and other nutritionally relevant substance composition of organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs is needed for both public policy and consumer advice. The aim of this report is to systematically review and compare the composition of organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs, focusing only on nutrients and other nutritionally relevant substances (nutrients and other substances).

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  • In order to establish the preferred shopping places for food, consumers were asked to indicate what shop they traditionally buy their groceries from. Six places were identified from past research as: supermarket, spaza shops (which are common in rural areas), Grocery stores, Farmers markets such as the Kei Fresh produce in Mthatha or the farmers market in Wilsonia, East London, Street vendors or the farm gate. Respondents’ were free to mark all the choices. An overwhelming majority of the respondents, 96% in the Transkei and 89.

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  • In the European Union, the existing insurance and reinsurance directives do not contain any provisions that place reliance on credit rating agencies. There is no explicit credit risk charge for the solvency margin in the Solvency I framework. The solvency margin in the Solvency I framework is not the sum of different capital charges related to different risks, but a single capital charge calibrated to reflect all the risks an insurance company faces.

    pdf114p enterroi 01-02-2013 16 4   Download

  • If now the household starts spending some of its income (as can be expected in the real world), we would see a further step in the income-creation: Demand for consumer goods would increase. As long as consumer goods are produced domestically and firms can expand their production, this would lead to a further increase in domestic employment, further increasing aggregate income. However, as households save part of their income, also aggregate saving increases, providing the ex post finance of the initial investment.

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  • As they make these decisions, policymakers will need to consider the distortions caused by prolonged conditions of monetary ease. After all, sustained low interest rates have been identified by many as an important factor that contributed to the crisis (see BIS, 79th Annual Report, Chapter I). At the same time, policymakers should also closely monitor the distortions arising from unconventional monetary policy tools. These include price distortions in bond markets that can result from changes in central banks’ criteria for eligible repo collateral and from their asset purchases.

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  • Yet, despite progress in the identification of problems and the development of improved methodologies -- and the possibility of regulatory initiatives that feature mandated environmental accounting -- the field lacks a methodology for evaluating the social and private benefits of improved environmental accounting. Whether regulators continue to motivate EA indirectly via outreach to the private sector, or more directly via incentives such as tax breaks or mandates, private sector resources and regulatory attention should be focused on initiatives that promise the greatest benefit.

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  •   The Center  for Audit Quality  (CAQ) was  founded  in order  to promote a  robust dialogue about  issues of importance to the U.S. capital markets for the benefit of investors, the public company  auditing  profession  and  the  markets  as  a  whole.  As  part  of  that  mission,  the  CAQ  recently  commissioned  a  survey  to  examine  an  essential  participant  in  the  preparation  of  audited  financial statements: audit committees.

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  • The balanced scorecard approach to performance measurement was originally developed in the private sector4. If measurement focuses on sales and profits managers can appear successful in the short term while ignoring long term development of the business, for example customer relations or staff training. The balanced scorecard approach tackles this by measuring both the ultimate outcome of the business, and aspects of the business that need to be maintained in the long term. It is balanced between financial and non-financial measures and across stakeholders....

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  • The first response focuses on the possibility of developing conscious awareness of one’s sensory experience. A second response suggests that the development of such awareness may not be necessary for one’s sensory experience to be aesthetically relevant. In psychological studies of unconscious cognition, such as the cocktail party effect, subjects listen to two streams of spoken language, one through each side of a pair of headphones, but are instructed to attend to only one.

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  • The analysis of flow and state interest are examples of perspectives where the individual is not seen as the center and origin of deeply engaging experience. Despite this shift in focus away from the individual and toward the environment, scholars in these areas should not be seen as occupying the same territory in the realm beyond rationality and control as the behaviorist camp. Instead, this new interactionism finds new ground by ...

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