The PHP ecosystem has changed dramatically in the past six years. Prior to PHP 5’s advent,
we PHP developers were primarily creating our projects on an ad-hoc basis, each project
differing from its predecessor; if we paid attention, each project improved on the previous—
but there was no guarantee. While tools and practices existed for managing code quality and
standards, they were still maturing, and not in widespread use.
The issue of disparity and inequalities between black and minority ethnic groups and the
majority white population in rates of mental ill health and equality of service in terms of
experience and outcomes has figured in government policy since Labour took office in 1997.
The death of an African-Caribbean patient named David Bennett in a secure psychiatric unit
whilst detained under the Mental Health Act (1983) and the subsequent inquiry report
published in 2003 found the NHS to be “institutionally racist”.
The structure of the paper is as follows. Section 2 discusses the literature on both measuring
competition and the bank interest rate pass-through. Section 3 describes the Boone indicator of
competition and Section 4 the employed interest rate pass-through model of the error-correction type
and the applied panel unit root and cointegration tests. Section 5 presents the various data sets used.
The results on the various tests and estimates of the spread model and the error correction model
equations are shown in Section 6. Finally, Section 7 summarises and concludes....
This book began as a study of Japanese public policy, more speciﬁcally
the legal, ethical, and political dimensions of health policy debates in
Japan. Having studied medico-legal conﬂicts in the United States,
and the tensions they generated between public health and individual
rights, state power and personal privacy, medical paternalism and
patients’ rights, I decided to examine how such concerns were
addressed in Japan with regard to AIDS policy and the deﬁnition of
Despite meager funding for pain research in the United States, the field of pain medicine is highly
active, as demonstrated by growth in the number of pain medicine publications and journals, develop-
ment of pain medicine associations, passage of pain medicine legislation for the military and Veterans
Affairs, and most recently, congressional activity to pass the National Pain Care Policy Act of 2009.