American universities, indeed, universities throughout the world, are facing
increased demand to share the knowledge developed within their campuses.
Historically, students pass knowledge to the greater society. But since at
least the 1960s, the university’s research role has dramatically increased,
with more and more resources devoted to basic and applied research in the
physical and biological sciences, engineering, humanities, social sciences,
and management ﬁelds. Not all of this research can be transmitted through
the graduation of students.