Urban air pollution

Xem 1-20 trên 64 kết quả Urban air pollution
  • Modern urban Air Pollution Stagnant air Continuing emissions "summer" (photochemical) smog: NO, NO2, CxHy, UV-rad: == O3 (reactions worked out on blackboard) Winter (cold weather) smog: fine or ultra-fine particles == health effects Mixture is different in different cities Traffic important source Toxicological mechanism still unknown Health effects even at low concentrations (from 40 mg/m3?)

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  • China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution; and recently, the air quality in large cities has deteriorated due to nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and photochemical smog, which are typical of vehicle pollution.

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  • Air pollution has been a major transboundary problem and a matter of global concern for decades. High concentrations of different air pollutants are particularly harmful to large cities residents, where numerous anthropogenic activities strongly influence the quality of air. Although there are many books on the subject, the one in front of you will hopefully fulfill some of the gaps in the area of air quality monitoring and modeling, and be of help to graduate students, professionals and researchers....

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  • Air pollution has always been a trans-boundary environmental problem and a matter of global concern for past many years. High concentrations of air pollutants due to numerous anthropogenic activities influence the air quality. There are many books on this subject, but the one in front of you will probably help in filling the gaps existing in the area of air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control, and can be of great help to graduate students professionals and researchers.

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  • In relation to studies and understanding of broad energy and pollution management issues, the U.S. National Academies have had an on-going program of cooperation with the Chinese Academies (Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering) for a number of years. Joint study activities date to the late 1990s and led to the publication in 2000 of Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States. This volume was the first examination of the broad energy questions facing both nations at the turn of the new millennium. ...

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  • Countries the world over, especially in the developing world, are experiencing rapid urbanization. The share of the world’s population living in cities is reported to have grown from about 35 percent in 1970 to almost 50 percent in 2001, and this number is expected to increase to more than 60 percent by 2030 (UN-HABITAT 2001). One of the many consequences of the increased economic activity that accompanies urbanization—particularly increased vehicle use, electricity generation, and industrial production—is the deterioration of air quality (Molina 2004)....

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  • An estimated 1.5 million deaths occur annually as a result of household air pollution from SFU mainly for cooking as well as winter season heating. The total disease burden, including morbidity, is estimated at 36 million DALYs (WHO 2007). 3 These deaths and DALYs arise mainly from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, and to a lesser extent lung cancer. There is also moderate evidence of increased risk of asthma, cataracts and tuberculosis (Desai et al, 2004; Smith et al, 2004).

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  • Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental threats to urban populations (Cohen 2005). Exposures vary among and within urban areas, but all people living in cities are exposed, and many are harmed, by current levels of pollutants in many large cities. Infants, young children, seniors and people who have lung and heart conditions are especially affected, but even young, healthy adults are not immune to harm from poor air quality.

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  • It is estimated that NRs. 0.5 billion per year in tourism revenue is lost due to air pollution in Kathmandu valley (World Bank, 1997). Findings of a survey conducted among 1,702 tourists between May and June 2001 by MARG Nepal indicate that the quality of air is the number one area where tourists feel improvement is needed. This shows that Kathmandu’s poor transportation system and pollution is not only affecting human health and environmental quality, but also the tourism industry (Business Age, 2001).

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  • Epidemiological studies usually report the associations between one or more pollutants and health. However, pollutants such as PM, NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO are often strongly correlated and occur as components of the complex urban air pollution mix. This correlation makes it difficult to accurately determine the independent effects of specific pollutants.

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  • Throughout the entire project many assumptions and methodological decisions had to be made along the various calculation steps in the domains of air pollution, epidemiology and economics. On each level, the method of dealing with uncertainty had to be defined. The research group decided that the main calculation ought to apply an “at least” approach, thus consistently selecting methodological assumptions in a way to get a result which may be expected to be “at least” attributable to air pollution.

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  • In the year 2004, outdoor air pollution in urban areas was responsible for almost 1.2 million deaths (2% of all deaths) and 0.6% of the global burden of disease. 1 Transportation-related air pollution, which is a significant contributor to total urban air pollution, increases the risks of cardiopulmonary-related deaths and non-allergic respiratory disease. Some evidence supports an association of transportation-related air pollution with increased risks of lung cancer, myocardial infarction, increased inflammatory response and adverse pregnancy outcomes (e.g.

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  • Smaller particulates related to combustion are much more dangerous because they are inhaled deeply into the lungs (Cifuentes et al. 2000, Laden et al. 2000). But note that even if particulate matter from soil is excluded, industry is still a relatively minor source of PM emissions, accounting for just 14% of remaining emissions. Even within the industry subsector, maquiladoras are not the leading source of two of the SNIFF air pollutants—PM and SO2. That distinction belongs to small-scale brick kilns (Table 2).

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  • This book is the principal output of a project to develop guidance on site layout planning to improve solar access, passive cooling and microclimate. The project is jointly funded by the European Commission JOULE programme and national funding agencies including the UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The European project is coordinated by BRE and includes the University of Athens, LEMA (University of Liege) and AICIA (University of Seville).

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  • Air pollution is a leading environmental threat to the health of urban populations overall and specifically to New York City residents. Clean air laws and regulations have improved the air quality in New York and most other large cities, but several pollutants in the city’s air are at levels that are harmful. This report provides estimates of the toll of air pollution on the health of New Yorkers. It focuses on 2 common air pollutants—fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3).

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  • Indoor air pollution poses many challenges to the health pro- fessional. This booklet offers an overview of those challenges, focusing on acute conditions, with patterns that point to par- ticular agents and suggestions for appropriate remedial action. The individual presenting with environmentally associated symptoms is apt to have been exposed to airborne substances originating not outdoors, but indoors. Studies from the United States and Europe show that persons in industrial- ized nations spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors1.

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  • The USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program seeks to assess the condition and trend of the forests of the U.S. FIA recently assumed responsibility for all former Forest Health Monitoring program (FHM) plot work on a national level, and is currently active in 32 states. Lichen community monitoring was included in FIA in order to address key assessment issues such as the impact of air pollution on forest resources, spatial and temporal trends in biodiversity, and the sustainability of timber harvesting.

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  • Environmental pollution has played a critical role in human lives since the early history of the nomadic tribes. During the last millennium, industrial revolution, increased population growth and urbanization have been the major determinants in shaping our environmental quality. Initially primary air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter were of concern. For example, the killer fog of London in 1952 resulted in significant numbers of human fatality leading to major air pollution control measures....

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  • Leading air quality professionals describe different aspects of air pollution. The book presents information on four broad areas of interest in the air pollution field; the air pollution monitoring; air quality modeling; the GIS techniques to manage air quality; the new approaches to manage air quality. This book fulfills the need on the latest concepts of air pollution science and provides comprehensive information on all relevant components relating to air pollution issues in urban areas and industries....

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  • We are experiencing rapid growth rate of urbanization, motorization and industrialization. Our overwhelming dependence on fossil fuel to drive our daily life and economic activities has led to releasing of various green house gases and air pollutants into the atmosphere resulting in degrading of the quality of air in the urban areas and global problem of climate change. Degrading of the quality of air in the urban areas has put at risk the lives of millions of people under direct threat due to health impacts associated with air pollution.

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