China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution; and recently, the air quality in large cities has deteriorated due to nitrous oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and photochemical smog, which are typical of vehicle pollution.
Modern urban Air Pollution
"summer" (photochemical) smog:
NO, NO2, CxHy, UV-rad: == O3
(reactions worked out on blackboard)
Winter (cold weather) smog:
fine or ultra-fine particles == health effects
Mixture is different in different cities
Traffic important source
Toxicological mechanism still unknown
Health effects even at low concentrations
(from 40 mg/m3?)
Air pollution has been a major transboundary problem and a matter of global concern for decades. High concentrations of different air pollutants are particularly harmful to large cities residents, where numerous anthropogenic activities strongly influence the quality of air. Although there are many books on the subject, the one in front of you will hopefully fulfill some of the gaps in the area of air quality monitoring and modeling, and be of help to graduate students, professionals and researchers....
Countries the world over, especially in the developing world, are experiencing rapid
urbanization. The share of the world’s population living in cities is reported to have
grown from about 35 percent in 1970 to almost 50 percent in 2001, and this number is
expected to increase to more than 60 percent by 2030 (UN-HABITAT 2001). One of the
many consequences of the increased economic activity that accompanies
urbanization—particularly increased vehicle use, electricity generation, and industrial
production—is the deterioration of air quality (Molina 2004)....
Air pollution has always been a trans-boundary environmental problem and a matter of global concern for past many years. High concentrations of air pollutants due to numerous anthropogenic activities influence the air quality. There are many books on this subject, but the one in front of you will probably help in filling the gaps existing in the area of air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control, and can be of great help to graduate students professionals and researchers.
This book is the principal output of a project to develop guidance on site
layout planning to improve solar access, passive cooling and microclimate.
The project is jointly funded by the European Commission JOULE
programme and national funding agencies including the UK Department of
the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The European project is
coordinated by BRE and includes the University of Athens, LEMA
(University of Liege) and AICIA (University of Seville).
An estimated 1.5 million deaths occur annually as a result of household air pollution from
SFU mainly for cooking as well as winter season heating. The total disease burden,
including morbidity, is estimated at 36 million DALYs (WHO 2007).
These deaths and
DALYs arise mainly from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children
and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, and to a lesser extent lung
cancer. There is also moderate evidence of increased risk of asthma, cataracts and
tuberculosis (Desai et al, 2004; Smith et al, 2004).
The USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program seeks to assess the condition and trend of the
forests of the U.S. FIA recently assumed responsibility for all former Forest Health Monitoring program
(FHM) plot work on a national level, and is currently active in 32 states. Lichen community monitoring
was included in FIA in order to address key assessment issues such as the impact of air pollution on forest
resources, spatial and temporal trends in biodiversity, and the sustainability of timber harvesting.
Air pollution is one of the most serious
environmental threats to urban populations
(Cohen 2005). Exposures vary among and within
urban areas, but all people living in cities are
exposed, and many are harmed, by current levels
of pollutants in many large cities. Infants, young
children, seniors and people who have lung
and heart conditions are especially affected, but
even young, healthy adults are not immune to
harm from poor air quality.
Environmental pollution has played a critical role in human lives since
the early history of the nomadic tribes. During the last millennium,
industrial revolution, increased population growth and urbanization have
been the major determinants in shaping our environmental quality.
Initially primary air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate
matter were of concern. For example, the killer fog of London in 1952
resulted in significant numbers of human fatality leading to major air
pollution control measures....
Leading air quality professionals describe different aspects of air pollution. The book presents information on four broad areas of interest in the air pollution field; the air pollution monitoring; air quality modeling; the GIS techniques to manage air quality; the new approaches to manage air quality. This book fulfills the need on the latest concepts of air pollution science and provides comprehensive information on all relevant components relating to air pollution issues in urban areas and industries....
It is estimated that NRs. 0.5 billion per year in tourism revenue is lost due to air
pollution in Kathmandu valley (World Bank, 1997). Findings of a survey conducted
among 1,702 tourists between May and June 2001 by MARG Nepal indicate that
the quality of air is the number one area where tourists feel improvement is needed.
This shows that Kathmandu’s poor transportation system and pollution is not only
affecting human health and environmental quality, but also the tourism industry
(Business Age, 2001).
Epidemiological studies usually report the associations between one or more pollutants
and health. However, pollutants such as PM, NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO are often
strongly correlated and occur as components of the complex urban air pollution mix. This
correlation makes it difficult to accurately determine the independent effects of specific
Throughout the entire project many assumptions and methodological decisions had to be made along
the various calculation steps in the domains of air pollution, epidemiology and economics. On each
level, the method of dealing with uncertainty had to be defined. The research group decided that the
main calculation ought to apply an “at least” approach, thus consistently selecting methodological
assumptions in a way to get a result which may be expected to be “at least” attributable to air
In the year 2004, outdoor air pollution in urban areas was responsible for almost 1.2
million deaths (2% of all deaths) and 0.6% of the global burden of disease.
Transportation-related air pollution, which is a significant contributor to total urban
air pollution, increases the risks of cardiopulmonary-related deaths and non-allergic
respiratory disease. Some evidence supports an association of transportation-related
air pollution with increased risks of lung cancer, myocardial infarction, increased
inflammatory response and adverse pregnancy outcomes (e.g.
Smaller particulates related to
combustion are much more dangerous because they are inhaled deeply into the lungs (Cifuentes
et al. 2000, Laden et al. 2000). But note that even if particulate matter from soil is excluded,
industry is still a relatively minor source of PM emissions, accounting for just 14% of remaining
Even within the industry subsector, maquiladoras are not the leading source of two of the
SNIFF air pollutants—PM and SO2. That distinction belongs to small-scale brick kilns (Table
Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN) concentrations measured at a commercial site approximately 7 km
north of the La Merced site were similar to those found in Los Angeles during the early 1970s.
PAN levels exceeded 30 ppb on five of the days sampled and exceeded 10 ppb on all but a few days of
Although there is no air quality standard for PAN, high PAN concentrations are a good
indicator of the organic oxidizing capacity of the urban air mass, since they are directly connected to
organic peroxy radical formation and nitrogen dioxide (both ozone-forming precursors).
In smaller regions such as the Carpathian Basin (located in Eastern/Central Europe), 50 km
horizontal resolution may still not be appropriate to describe the meso-scale processes (e.g.,
cloud formation and convective precipitation). For this purpose on a national level several
RCMs have been adapted with finer resolution (25 and 10 km). Here, results from two of the
adapted RCMs for Hungary are analyzed, namely, models PRECIS and RegCM.
In this paper, first, data and models from PRUDENCE, PRECIS and RegCM are presented.
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y - N I N E
Air Pollution in Cities
Some cities face severe air pollution problems, while other cities of similar population sizes are much cleaner. For example, World Bank data from 1995 indicates that for a sample of major cities where air quality was monitored, the ambient particulate level of the average Asian city was four times higher than that of the average city in Western Europe. In the year 1995, there were at least 25 cities in Asia whose ambient particulate levels...