Urban climate

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  • Climate change is happening now. Climate-induced disasters are occurring in the Asia Pacific region, where a distinctly increasing trend has been observed in recent decades. This shows that the region is the most disaster prone, compared with other parts of the world. Studies on the causes of disaster in many affected regions suggest that in a typical disaster, cities with high population density see increases in mortality and number of people affected. Increased economic losses within the region are also inevitable.

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  • Anomalous climatic outcomes such as higher temperatures, intense rainfall and flood, frequent and severe droughts are now at the new level. Without appropriate adaptation measures, climate change is bound to exacerbate vulnerability of society, place food security and human health at risk, threaten the lives of growing urban population and impede the goal of attaining sustainable development. The human and social dimensions of climate change, including climate policy, are essential parts of our response to the many challenges emanating from climate change....

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  • This book is the principal output of a project to develop guidance on site layout planning to improve solar access, passive cooling and microclimate. The project is jointly funded by the European Commission JOULE programme and national funding agencies including the UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The European project is coordinated by BRE and includes the University of Athens, LEMA (University of Liege) and AICIA (University of Seville).

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  • In smaller regions such as the Carpathian Basin (located in Eastern/Central Europe), 50 km horizontal resolution may still not be appropriate to describe the meso-scale processes (e.g., cloud formation and convective precipitation). For this purpose on a national level several RCMs have been adapted with finer resolution (25 and 10 km). Here, results from two of the adapted RCMs for Hungary are analyzed, namely, models PRECIS and RegCM. In this paper, first, data and models from PRUDENCE, PRECIS and RegCM are presented.

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  • Acknowledgements Governing Water (2004 – 2007) is a project funded by the European Commission. The aim is to raise awareness and promote dialogue on good governance, using water as a discussion issue, within and between communities in Fiji. More than 40 rural and urban communities on Viti Levu and Vanua Levu have participated in the Governing Water project. Through Governing Water, over 300 community facilitators and schoolteachers have been trained.

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  • Housing of course means homes. To most people this is their most treasured possession. It is not just bricks and mortar or a financial investment; it is a vital part of their life. ‘You mould the building and the building moulds you’ as Winston Churchill is said to have put it. Home is crucial to everybody’s daily well-being. As such it is normally treated with pride, and its character and contents are an extension of their per- sonality. The creation of a home is not therefore just an intellectual design exercise detached from the occupant. It should be their design.

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  • The rapid development of science and technology leads to improvement of human life, but also creating of new crisis situation. Mankind is confronted with risks that have not been seen before in human history. Global worming is one of the typical examples. Although ma‐ jority of the experts that are studying climate changes claim that global worming is a fact and that it is caused by human, there are also scientists that doubt those statements. One of the main problems related to critical situations is – mater of responsibility.

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  • Kuttler Environmental Sciences Europe 2011, 23:21 http://www.enveurope.com/content/23/1/21 REVIEW Open Access Climate change in urban areas. Part 2, Measures Klimawandel im urbanen Bereich. Teil 2, Maßnahmen Wilhelm Kuttler* Abstract Part 2 presents measures at the city scale, which are distinguished into object- and area-related means. The former ones include emission reduction, energy gaining and saving, as well as the climate-improving impact of rooftop and façade greening.

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  • Parents and children need a framework for care which provides continuity from pre-pregnancy, through pregnancy and childbirth, to the early years of life. A comprehensive approach to early life is needed which builds on existing programmes to ensure our children get the best start in life8. Midwives have a key role in ensuring that their contribution integrates with the roles of other professionals and agencies working in collaboration with maternity services.

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  • In many European countries incineration is used as an important means of waste disposal in urban areas. The proportion of waste disposal by this route varies across Europe, from 13% in Italy to 53% in Switzerland, with an average value of 20 %. However, in some countries (for example, Portugal, Spain) the use of incineration is not used or is under consiration as a new option for waste disposal. Two main types of pollutants (combustion gases and fly ash) are emitted from incinerators.

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  • The decline in the economy, particularly in the second half of 2008, likely contributed to smaller gains in participants relative to previous years and a number of programs reported losses in the total number of participants. Perhaps surprisingly, nonresidential participant growth was on par with 2007; while the reason for this increase is unclear, one possible explanation could be heightened interest in renewable energy issues in an election year in which renewables and climate change were a focus.

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  • After 1991, European governments grew accustomed to Russian acquiescence. Moscow might have put up a struggle against European policies – from humanitarian intervention in Kosovo, NATO and EU enlargement, to visa arrangements for Kaliningrad and the Kyoto Protocol on climate change – but the Kremlin’s bark always proved worse than its bite. The Russian government, crippled by massive debt, financial instability and the war in Chechnya, caved in each time because of its reliance on Western help. ...

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  • Current efforts to address climate change focus mainly on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through cleaner energy strategies, and on attempting to reduce vulnerability of communities at risk by improving infrastructure to meet new energy and water needs. This report attempts to set out a compelling argument for including ecosystem‐based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third and essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. The report is targeted at both Bank task teams and country clients.

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  • In a world where the population is expected to rise to 10 billion by the turn of the century, accelerating urbanisation and the increasing the demand for food and energy; taking action to secure sufficient water of acceptable quality for humans and nature is as urgent as ever. Climate change is projected to aggravate water stress in many regions, especially where water is already scarce and where the demand for water is growing rapidly. Increased frequency of floods is also projected.

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  • There has been a steady increase in anthropogenic pressure over the past few years due to rapid industrialization, urbanization and population growth, causing frequent environmental hazards. Threats of global environmental change, such as climate change and sea level rise, will exacerbate such problems. Therefore, appropriate policies and measures are needed for management to address both local and global trends.

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  • Targeting fuel refiners and importers: influencing fuel supply. Measures to influence fuel supply might involve subsidies and transfers for research, development and deployment, or regulations and standards for fuel quality. Such standards are most effective when they regulate performance criteria, rather than fuel composition per se. Targeting developers and planners: influencing the built environment. Urban form and design can influence how long average trips taken in urban areas need to be, and what modes of transport are viable.

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  • In addition to affecting air quality and natural environmental degradation, transportation can also play a key role in the degradation of urban environments. The delays and frustrations caused by urban traffic congestion can reduce human productivity and quality of life, thus possibly reducing the potential gross domestic or gross regional product. The noise produced by various types of motor vehicles, as well as the excessive use of horns–a fact of life in cities in many developing countries–raises the level of ambient noise, increases stress and reduces the quality of life.

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  • We are aiming to create new partnerships with the private sector to increase green investments. The aim is to demonstrate to major private sector investors that climate friendly investments are financially viable. In particular we are working on two partnerships with the private sector for climate-friendly funds. We and other public sector players will consider investing in these funds alongside private pension and sovereign wealth funds.

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  • Ezzati and Kammen (2001, 2002) present indoor PM concentration measurements also for several types of charcoal stoves. PM concentrations are found to be substantially lower than concentrations from fuel wood stoves. Charcoal is often considered by households as an intermediate fuel on the energy ladder. While it certainly is not considered a clean fuel, it is often a preferred choice in many urban areas whenever available instead of fuel wood, before households can afford LPG or other clean alternatives.

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  • In the year 2004, outdoor air pollution in urban areas was responsible for almost 1.2 million deaths (2% of all deaths) and 0.6% of the global burden of disease. 1 Transportation-related air pollution, which is a significant contributor to total urban air pollution, increases the risks of cardiopulmonary-related deaths and non-allergic respiratory disease. Some evidence supports an association of transportation-related air pollution with increased risks of lung cancer, myocardial infarction, increased inflammatory response and adverse pregnancy outcomes (e.g.

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