Ho Chi Minh City is a one of the biggest cities of Vietnam. Before 1945, there were about 400,000 inhabitants living in the city. During the last two decades, it became the biggest industrial and commercial center of the country. According to the statistics in 2005, its population was about 6.2 million people. In the suburban areas of the city, particularly in the northern part, agricultural activities produce the main income of these local residents.
A groundbreaking study of urban sprawl in Calgary, "Expansive Discourses" looks at the city’s development after the Second World War. The interactions of land developers and the local government influenced how the pattern grew: developers met market demands and optimized profits by building houses as efficiently as possible, while the city had to consider wider planning constraints and infrastructure costs.In "Expansive Discourses", Foran examines the complexity of their debates from a historical perspective, why each party acted as it did, and where each can be criticized....
The biological changes underlying the transition process from gingival health to early
inflammatory changes involve local increase in vascular permeability, edema and the
recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) (Delima and Van
Dyke 2003). Acquired immune response becomes involved once antigen-presenting cells
interact with immunocompetent cells, such as T and B lymphocytes, leading to the
expansion of antibody-secreting plasma cells and the development of the chronic lesion
(Gemmell and Seymour 2004).
My hometown is Son Duong the district of Tuyen Quang province. If is 60kmsfrom my home to Hanoi.There are a big change about the face of my city since the growth of economic was pushed up in 1998, such us, many big houses are risen up, the roads are opened widely, and people become richer or some thing like that. Especially, there are two major effects of economic growth, that are the urban expansion, and the improvement of living standard.
We have chosen to synthesize these insights through a set of eight hypotheses that seems
to capture the main elements of the diverse views of urban poverty. The hypotheses are
driven by four underlying themes of urban poverty that occur repeatedly across the mul-
tiple literatures on the subject of poverty. These themes are economic structure, popula-
tion characteristics, societal institutions, and location.
Although the themes are reflected
in our hypotheses, they do not fit neatly into the broad categories.
Major health problems in Myanmar, which are most likely to be exacerbated by this crisis, relate
predominantly to communicable diseases (malaria, dengue, measles) and malnutrition, especially in
children. As of 2003, 40% of children under five were assessed as being stunted, indicating chronic
malnutrition and 10% as being wasted (acute malnutrition) (UNICEF). Major causes of death are usually
due to malaria, respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases.
The French work was based on the available Black Smoke (BS) data. A correlation analysis between
BS and PM10 (TEOM method7
) was first carried out. It was found that at urban background sites, BS
and PM10 (TEOM) are about equal. Following this, linear relationships were sought between the BS
data and land use categories in the areas surrounding the measurement sites. Multiple regression
analysis was performed for three categories of sites: urban, suburban and rural. Based on these
regressions and using the land use data set, a PM10 map was established.
Technology, engineering and medicine have inter-
vened in the way we manage water and wetlands to
successfully improve aspects of and foster human
health. Over the same period, increasing human
populations and increasing rates of consumption by
humans, alterations to land use and land cover and
the practices of irrigation, all associated with agri-
culture, urban expansion, and global environmental
change, have collectively and substantially adversely
modified wetland systems, in terms of both water
quality and water quantity.
In recent decades a significant part of the land use changes caused
by the population expansion in Turkish cities has not followed an
urban development plan but was rather driven by unlicensed build-
As an example, the built-up area in the province of
Istanbul increased by more than 40% between 1990 and 2005. New
settlements were typically erected on public land near water bodies
and in areas that had been made more accessible by new trans-
portation routes like the Transit European Motorway, the E-5 and the
second Bosphorus Bridge.
Conventional project evaluation tends to exaggerate highway expansion economic
benefits by ignoring induced travel effects (Hodge, Weisbrod and Hart 2003; Litman
2007a). Urban traffic congestion tends to maintain equilibrium; it gets bad enough to
discourage further growth in peak-period vehicle trips.
Expansion of cultivated area seems unlikely to slow. Population growth,
rising incomes, and urbanization will continue to drive demand growth for
some food products, especially oilseed and livestock, and related demands for
feed and industrial products. A conservative estimate is that, in developing
countries, 6 million ha of additional land will be brought into production
each year to 2030. Two-thirds of this expansion will be in Sub-Saharan Africa
and Latin America, where potential farmland is most plentiful.
For this analysis it is useful to distinguish between roadway rehabilitation and expansion
projects (Troth 2009). There is little controversy concerning the value of basic roadway
rehabilitation, sometimes called fix it first (NGA 2004) or asset management (“Asset
Management,” VTPI 2008). However, there is growing debate over the value of urban
highway expansion (new road links, additional traffic lanes, expanded intersections, etc.)
because they tend to induce additional vehicle travel and stimulate more dispersed,
automobile-oriented land use development (sprawl).