Xem 1-20 trên 36 kết quả Urban individuals
  • This is a spectacular resource for practitioners, policymakers, researchers, and students interested in improving the lives and health of individuals and families in urban settings. This book provides the most current frameworks, research, and approaches for understanding how unique features of the urban physical and social environments that shape the health of over half of the world's population that is already residing in large cities. Its interdisciplinary research and practice focus is a welcome innovation....

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  • Urban Ecology is the study of ecosystems that include humans living in cities and urbanizing landscapes. It is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that aims to understand how human and ecological processes can coexist in human-dominated systems and help societies with their efforts to become more sustainable. It has deep roots in many disciplines including sociology, geography, urban planning, landscape architecture, engineering, economics, anthropology, climatology, public health, and ecology.

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  • The proposed Institutional Actions to support the third component involves the strengthening and promotion of private sector involvement in the bus sub-sector, preceded by some important public sector technical reforms. This Chapter provides some outline recommendations for the development of urban transport within the STAP period, which are individually highlighted in text boxes.

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  • General Practitioners are usually the first medical point of contact for elderly people, but some doctors may fail to diagnose alcohol misuse in a population where there are other urgent medical matters and some believe that it may be better for the individual to continue in their established pattern of drinking as altering it could be harmful. Elderly patients may show reluctance at disclosing their alcohol intake and relatives may wish to hide the evidence of the misuse of alcohol and deny the existence of the problem.

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  • The biologic phenotype underlying chronic periodontitis, including the biofilm and the host response, tend to vary among individuals despite a similar clinical diagnostic category (Offenbacher et al. 2007). Consequently, disease screening should ideally be based on clinical determinations and the biologic phenotype (Page and Kornman 1997). Other associated factors include environmental exposures, as well as differences in genetic and possibly epigenetic composition (Page and Kornman 1997).

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  • C H A P T E R F I V E The Spatial Pattern of Land Use in the United States 5.1 INTRODUCTION There is currently great interest in understanding and managing the impacts of land-use changes on individual and social well-being.

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  • C H A P T E R T W E N T Y - E I G H T Measuring Quality of Life Life is good when quality of life is high. To many of us, an ideal quality of life index would measure a person’s overall well-being; that is, an individual’s total utility. An ideal index would depend upon things that money can buy.

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  • Finance is all about the systems, institutions and instruments involved in the transfer of funds between individuals, businesses and governments. This includes vital, short-run decisions such as cash management and credit policy, which affect the survival of an organisation, as well as long-term decisions such as investment in plant and equipment, fund-raising, and mergers and takeovers, which determine the wealth of stakeholders. Your studies in finance can lead to career opportunities and also provide useful personal money management strategies.

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  • The combination of methods proved to be valuable because each method had weaknesses: the literature search did not cover all countries; the questionnaire survey did not provide the same amount or quality of information for all countries; and the limited resources did not allow for expert interviews in all countries. Each method provided certain information that was not available from the other sources. Limitations exist for the direct comparison of single countries because of the limited number of interviews and respondents to the survey.

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  • The MA, which focused on ecosystem change and the impacts of such change on human well-being, included a set of sub-global assessments at multiple spatial scales, in addition to the global assessment. This was one of the innovations of the MA compared to other international assessments, which usually focus on global or regional scales alone. The global and sub-global assessments analyzed ecosystem services and human wellbeing from different perspectives and with different stakeholders involved.

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  • The Reschovsky and Staiti study [28] interviewed both patients and physicians, and provides considerable insight regarding differences in physical accessibility across the urban-rural continuum. The nationally representative survey was fielded in urban, suburban, and remote rural regions. Persons in remote rural regions had significantly longer travel times to see physicians and specialists than persons in metropolitan areas (2 minutes longer to see a physician and 34 minutes longer to see a specialist).

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  • First, there needs to be a clear usage pattern established for those items deemed to be “critical supplies.” Information on increased usage during critical situations in the past, such as infectious outbreaks or infrastructure damage would be extremely useful. Second, determine the time period for which you plan to be without assistance. Third, determine what would need to be kept on hand to accommodate that time frame. This will vary significantly on your environment, especially based on a rural or urban setting, type of disaster, and availability of suppliers.

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  • Indoor air pollution poses many challenges to the health pro- fessional. This booklet offers an overview of those challenges, focusing on acute conditions, with patterns that point to par- ticular agents and suggestions for appropriate remedial action. The individual presenting with environmentally associated symptoms is apt to have been exposed to airborne substances originating not outdoors, but indoors. Studies from the United States and Europe show that persons in industrial- ized nations spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors1.

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  • Credit scores, as a quantitative shorthand for credit histories, increase the potential for customized pricing of credit based on the risk an individual poses. Some argue that charging more to consumers defined as higher risk would remove some of the cost of risk carried by the general consumer population, and would allow for price reductions among consumers who pose less risk.

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  • The perception of odour may result in some individuals reporting subjective sensory irritation, and individuals may perceive formaldehyde at concentrations below 0.1 mg/m3 . However, this is not considered to be an adverse health effect. The NOAEL of 0.6 mg/m3 for the eye blink response is adjusted using an assess- ment factor of 5 derived from the standard deviation of nasal pungency (sensory irritation) thresholds, leading to a value of 0.12 mg/m3 , which has been rounded down to 0.1 mg/m3 .

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  • In addition to visual art, the conference also covered a topic of special interest in visual neuroaesthetics: facial beauty. Other peo- ple’s faces constitute highly relevant stimuli for humans, and face perception is mediated by distributed neural regions (Ishai, 2007), including the extrastriate cortex, which is specially dedicated to processing individual identity, and the superior temporal sulcus, which processes facial movements involved in speech and direct- ing gaze.

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  • The challenge of alleviating poverty and improving living conditions for the poorest populations is a formidable one. It is increasingly apparent that such a betterment of the lot of poor people requires an effort that spans all sectors of the economy and may not be easy to achieve through economic growth alone. Improved access to financial services helps poor people by enabling payment transactions that then bring them into the formal sector.

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  • After the state identified a nutrient problem (nitrogen and phosphorous) in the basin, it recommended a strategy to limit nutrient discharges from a group of point source dischargers. Subsequently, some of the dischargers formed an association and proposed an alternative strategy that included pollutant trading. The strategy, approved by the state, contains a total, allowable discharge level for the association that, in turn, allocates individual discharge limits among its members. If ...

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  • In view of the limited availability of radio frequency spectrum in the land mobile bands between 100 and 500 MHz in large urban areas of the country, the Department of Industry initiated in April, 1995, a process leading to a change in the spectrum management framework for these bands. This change will facilitate the introduction of more spectrum efficient equipment and systems, leading to increased overall traffic capacity of the bands, as part of long term solutions in meeting mobile spectrum needs.

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  • In the general field of Environmental Psychology an increasing number of studies propose that subjects’ general well-being can be significantly increased as a result of contact with environments considered to have high aesthetic value. The present study has attempted to study the possible effects of the contemplation of everyday landscapes on citizens’ emotional well- being, identifying some of the main affective responses associated with aesthetic judgements of urban landscapes.

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