Design patterns provide good solutions for problems occurred in the design stage. Using design patterns in the software development processes helps improve productivity and quality of software products. Pattern Oriented Analysis and Design Process has four steps related to patterns, namely the acquaintance with design patterns in the pattern library, the retrieval of the pattern candidate, the selection of suitable patterns and the application of selected patterns.
This paper describes a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that the parallel application of multiple NLP tools and the integration of their results improves the correctness and robustness of the resulting analysis. It is shown how annotations created by seven NLP tools are mapped onto toolindependent descriptions that are deﬁned with reference to an ontology of linguistic annotations, and how a majority vote and ontological consistency constraints can be used to integrate multiple alternative analyses of the same token in a consistent way. ...
In addition to explicitly named Properties, “code” and “id” attributes are special cases. Every entity in the Thésaurus
– Concepts, Kinds, Properties, and Roles – has an associated “code” and “id.” These are used as unique identifiers in
the Apelon development software, and, as such, are not defined explicitly as Roles or Properties. This required a
hard-coded definition of both entities. They were defined as owl:AnnotationProperties, just like other Properties in
the Thésaurus, and this allowed them to be attached to all of the definitions in the ontology.
In this project, you first establish accurate proportions and outline the various shapes and forms
of an adorable young owl named Hooter; you then use graduated hatching techniques to
characterize the various textures and define the forms.
This project is divided into the following two sections:
Gesture is the vehicle used in fitting a character into the role it is called upon to act out.
We have drawn variously, dogs, mice, owls, elephants, cats, people, and so on; each
distinct characters with distinct bodily shapes and bodily gestures. To approach a model
with the idea of copying a human figure plus its clothing could be called a waste of time.
Our interest is in seeing the differences in each personality and their individualistic
gestures and, like a good caricaturist, capture the essence of those differences.
Discovering the distinction between Roles (local restrictions on properties), and Properties (annotations to a specific
class) was another important step. At this point in the development, we were forced to make a choice in which
species of OWL to use. Developers attached properties that are not inherited to concepts. If the translator directly
attached Properties to classes, the ontology would be in OWL Full. For computational benefits, we decided to work
in OWL Lite, and thus owl:AnnotationProperties were used.
For other conversions, these...
We demonstrate an open-source natural language generation engine that produces descriptions of entities and classes in English and Greek from OWL ontologies that have been annotated with linguistic and user modeling information expressed in RDF . We also demonstrate an accompanying plug-in for the Prot´ g´ ontology editor, e e which can be used to create the ontology’s annotations and generate previews of the resulting texts by invoking the generation engine.
Semantic Web technologies enable the integration of heterogeneous data using expli-
cit semantics, the expression of rich and well-defined models for data aggregation, and
the application of logic to gain new knowledge from the raw data . Semantic tech-
nologies can be used to encode metadata such as provenance, i.e. the original source
where the data came from and how it was generated . There are four main
Semantic Web standards for knowledge representation: Resource Description Frame-
In creating an ontology that represented these semantics, the first choice was to decide among OWL's three
sub-languages: OWL Lite, OWL DL, and OWL Full. Though OWL Full is the most expressive of the
three languages, the first two have several advantages. OWL DL and its formal subset, OWL Lite, are
guaranteed to be both computationally complete and decidable. The NCI Thésaurus is created using a DL
tool, so the restrictions of these two variants of the ...
Countless organizations have their own intricate and well-developed thesauri that have been refined over many
years. With consummate converters, these thesauri can become a strong and useful element on the semantic web.
Like the Thésaurus from the National Cancer Institute, many are available in an unusual form of XML, or not in
XML at all. As in this case, simple translations using standard XML parsers often will not be a reasonable solution
for making the transition to RDF or OWL.
The most time...
The scope of the Translational Medicine Ontology (TMO) is defined by the use case
terminology and respective data sources. Each term and corresponding data source
was analyzed for its conceptual, representational and reasoning capability as required
by the use case requirements. TMO terms were obtained from a lexical analysis of
sample research questions from 14 types of users, all of whom were involved in aspects
of research, clinical care and or business (Table 2). Terms were formalized as referring
to classes, relations or individuals in the OWL ontology.