Vaccine development

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  • Principles of Vaccine Use Route of Administration Microbes differ in their routes of infection, patterns of transmission, and predispositions for certain age groups. The route of vaccine administration (oral, intranasal, intradermal, transdermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular) takes these factors into account in order to maximize protection and minimize adverse events. Vaccine development is more a pragmatic undertaking than an exact science, guided only in part by immunologic principles and shaped largely by the results of clinical trials.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Dendritic cells: In the forefront of immunopathogenesis and vaccine development – A review...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and genotype distribution among high-risk Korean women for prospecting the strategy of vaccine development

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế về bệnh thú y đề tài: Application of biotechnological tools for coccidia vaccine development

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Conserved epitopes of influenza A virus inducing protective immunity and their prospects for universal vaccine development

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  • Three-day dendritic cells for vaccine development: Antigen uptake, processing and presentation

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  • The book Cell Interaction focuses on various processes that occur within and outside the cells. Cell interactions are important for functioning of many organ systems: cell adhesion, tissue development, cellular communication, inflammation, tumor metastasis, and microbial infection. Key features include developmental cell interactions, immune and neural cell interactions, cell interactions in normal and disease conditions and advanced level methods to evaluate cell interactions.

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  • Among the valid contraindications applicable to all vaccines are a history of anaphylaxis or other serious allergic reactions to a vaccine or vaccine component and the presence of a moderate or severe illness, with or without fever. Infants who develop encephalopathy within 72 h of a dose of DTP or DTaP should not receive further doses; those who experience a "precaution" event should not normally receive further doses. Because of theoretical risks to the fetus, pregnant women should not receive MMR or varicella vaccine.

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  • An illuminating example is the case of Rotashield, a rhesus reassortant rotavirus vaccine, which was introduced for routine use in the United States in the late 1990s. Within 9 months of its introduction, cases of intussusception were reported by the CDC to be temporally associated with the administration of the initial vaccine dose. This report led first to the cessation of the vaccine's use and subsequently to its withdrawal from the market and the discontinuation of its production.

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  • Over the centuries, from Edward Jenner to Bill Gates, as our scientific understanding of diseases has increased, so has the focus on prioritizing new vaccines to help achieve better health. Despite the expanding interest in and support toward improving global health, constraints inherent to vaccine development and delivery present decision makers with difficult choices. Given the lack of effective tools and models to assist the decisionmaking process, renewed attention is needed to improve the approaches available for priority setting and for guiding investment decisions....

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  • Mutant analysis by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme cleavage (MAPREC) has been developed by Chumakov et al. for poliovirus to determine quantitatively the presence of genomic changes in particular nucleotide sequences that lead to virulence phenotypes of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV or live attenuated vaccine) [1]. Afterwards, this RI (radioisotope) MAPREC was developed to non RI – MAPREC by Japan Poliomyelitis Research Institute in 1998 to compensate for some disadvantages of RI-MAPREC [2].

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  • Responding to the disease burden of Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD), the WCO will help strengthen the national capacity to reduce morbidity and mortality due to AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, achieve high-level immunization coverage with all antigens in order to reduce the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases, achieve the eradication of polio, elimination/control of measles and neonatal tetanus, reduce morbidity due to helminthiasis, eliminate leprosy, intensify surveillance and response to epidemic-prone diseases, and reduce/control the burden of NCDs, while paying atten...

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  • Immune system is composed of innate and adaptive responses and plays critical roles in cancer development and destruction. A century ago, Paul Ehrlich postulated that cancer would be quite common in long-lived organisms if not for the protective effects of immunity. About 50 years later, Burnet and Thomas proposed the concept of cancer immunosurveillance based on the experimental evidence of immune recognition of tumor antigens expressed on tumor cells (Dunn et al. 2004 ) . In 1971, the US Congress created a National Cancer Act – a War on Cancer.

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  • In the recent past many card issuers have extended the range of tools available on debit cards. A chip on the card makes offline authorisation of guaranteed card payments possible. In addition, bank cards can be used as prepaid cards (the GeldKarte system of the ZKA). As a consequence of the merger between the Europe-wide edc (European debit card) service and the worldwide Maestro system, since the beginning of 1998 many POS terminals and cash dispensers throughout the world have been available to holders of ec cards with the Maestro logo.

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  • The production of industrial chemicals and plastics has increased considerably in recent years (Fig. 3). The plastics industry alone directly employs 1.2 million people, and supports 20,000 facilities that produce plastic goods for sale. With- out the billions of dollars on research and development in plastics we would be without many of the now commonly accepted objects that we tend to take for granted.

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  • The development of antiviral drugs is still in its infancy with rapid changes and progressive milestones encountered almost daily. By the time this book is distributed, new drugs may have already been added. This is particularly true for the antiretroviral drugs, which seem to be growing in number exponentially to the casual observer trying to keep abreast of recent advances in this field. As

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  • Tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria are the three most profound cause of death worldwide. In developing country tuberculosis is a serious problem. It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis; however, only a minority (10%) of those infected ever develop clinical disease (Corbett et al., 2003). Such clinical diversity suggests that factors other than bacterial infection alone determine disease development.

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  • Resistance towards the responsible pathogens are also seen in developed countries. The situation has worsened often due to limited resource available to investigate and provide reliable susceptibility data on which rational treatments can be based as well as means to optimize the use of antimicrobial agents. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant isolates in tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections and diarrhea, often referred to as diseases of poverty, has had its greatest toll in developing countries.

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  • Destinations are amalgams of tourism products, offering an integrated experience to consumers. Traditionally, destinations are regarded as well-defined geographical areas, such as a country, an island or a town. However, it is increasingly recognised that a destination can also a perceptual concept, which can be interpreted subjectively by consumers, depending on their travel itinerary, cultural background, purpose of visit, educational level and past experience.

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  • The purpose of surveillance in the post/pandemic period is to provide information that will enable timely epidemic or pandemic detection, inform health policy decisions and influenza management strategies, and guide influenza vaccine development and prioritization.

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