Valuing ecosystem

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  • Ecosystems provide a wide variety of marketable goods, fish and lumber being two familiar examples. However, society is increasingly recognizing the myriad functions—the observable manifestations of ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling, regulation of climate, and maintenance of biodiversity— that they provide, without which human civilizations could not thrive. Derived from the physical, biological, and chemical processes at work in natural ecosystems, these functions are seldom experienced directly by users of the resource.

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  • This book addresses the significant environmental changes experienced by high latitude and high altitude ecosystems at the beginning of the 21st century. Increased temperatures and precipitation, reduction in sea ice and glacier ice, the increased levels of UV-radiation and the long-range transported contaminants in arctic and alpine regions are stress factors that challenge terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'conserving and valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity economic, institutional and social', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ sinh học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Conserving biodiversity and the ecosystem services that they provide is part of the larger objective of promoting human well-being and sustainable development. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) 2005 has brought about a fundamental change in the way that scientists perceive the role and value of biodiversity, and recognizes the dynamics and linkages between people, biodiversity and ecosystems. Human activities have direct and indirect impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, which in turn affects the ecosystems services that they provide, and ultimately human well-being.

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  • National parks or generally protected areas (PAs) normally hold a high value as a recreational resource or destination. Though in many cases no fee or charge is made to view or enjoy natural ecosystems, people still spend time and money to reach PAs. These costs of spending (for transport, food, accommodation, time, etc.) can be calculated, and a visitation rates can be compared to expenditures. These travel costs reveals the value that people place on recreational, tourism or leisure aspects of PAs....

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  • Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological conditions....

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  • The pH values will bring effects in flora and fauna nearby, change the taste of water and lead to heavy corrosion in pipe lines. High conductivity naturally indicates the presence of ionic substances dissolved in the river water. However, the result showed that 90% of the study site exceeded the data reported for non-contaminated rivers due to excessive metal ions within the water. At the site nearer to kaolin industry the conductivity is 852 times higher than the non-polluted study site. The industrial discharge also changed the hardness in river water.

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  • Our planet’s atmosphere is thought to have changed gradually and over a very wide range of CO2 concentrations throughout history. From ancient atmospheric gases trapped in ice bubbles, we have strong evidence indicating that atmospheric CO2 values reached minimum concentrations of approximately 180 parts per million during the Last Glacial Maximum, which was only 15,000 years ago. At the other extreme, calculations suggest that some 500 million years ago the atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have been about 4000 to 5000 parts per million....

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  • It was not until the eighteenth century that the subject of this book, the pollination services of bees, began to be understood and valued. Nevertheless, the association between man and bees has been long and close, and dates from at least 2400 BC. Beekeeping with the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, was a well-developed craft in ancient Egypt during the fi fth dynasty of the Old Kingdom.

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  • There  is,  of  course,  some  potential  overlap within  these  sub‐sectors,  and  some  activities  could  fall  within more  than  one  of  the  three main  categories.  For  example,  Additional  Energy  Sources  could  potentially fall within the Renewable Energy sector, but has been include within Emerging Low Carbon  because  it  includes  mainly  new  energy  sources  and  those  that  are  still  in  development  (such  as  hydrogen fuel cells).

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  • For several years, innovation has been omnipresent and part of strategic matters. The word “innovation” is in the headlines of reports, articles and business media, and is also the subject of events, projects, think-tanks, clubs and blogs. Several forums on social networks are devoted to its various facets. This is a global phenomenon. In the 20 th Century, innovation was a subject for research centers of large companies and public laboratories.

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  • If the UK environmental employment baseline  level grows  in  line with projected annual growth rates  (see Table 3 below), then, potentially, an additional 400,000 jobs could be created over the next eight  years ‐ representing a 45%  increase on today’s  level. This  is a rough estimate based on the growth  in  market  value, where  employment  levels  are  calculated  on  a  pro  rata  basis.

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  • Large lakes are important because of their size and ecological distinctiveness, as well as their economic and cultural value. Optimal management of them requires a proper understanding of anthropogenic impacts, both on the lake ecosystems, as such and on the services they provide for society. The specific structural and functional properties of large lakes, e.g. morphology, hydrography, biogeochemical cycles, and food-web structure, are all directly related to their size.

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  • In Germany, the cheque has never become as important as it has in many other countries of the western world. In terms of numbers it accounts for a mere 1.3% of all cashless transactions, in terms of value just 2.7%. It is used for only 0.1% of all payments at retailers. On account of the increase in more efficient debit card payments, the importance of the cheque is steadily decreasing. A further decline in cheque payments in retail business can be expected as the eurocheque guarantee ceased at the end of the year 2001. Although the number and value of...

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  • We use three models to estimate health damages from PM10. First, we use an air dispersion model to estimate each source’s contribution to annual average ambient levels of PM10 at several thousand receptor locations in Paso del Norte. Next, we use a health effects model to estimate the number of cases of human mortality and morbidity that result from this pollution each year. Finally, we use a valuation model to calculate the dollar values of these health impacts. This section briefly discusses each of these models. A more detailed discussion is available in Blackman et...

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  • MUH-HE-KUN-NE-TUK—the River That Flows BothWays. Native Americans revered the river and defined themselves by it for at least twelve millennia. Early European explorers and colonists renamed it many times: Mauritius; River of the Mountains; North River; Hudson River. It has been called America’s Rhine. Those who have lived or traveled along it, worked upon it, defended it, or simply beheld it, have valued this river out of all proportion to its meager 315 mile length.

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  • In two decades the Internet has become central to social and economic life and is, today, a mature and integral element of the U. S. national economy. It is not only vital infrastructure, it is a spur to entrepreneurship and social change. It has changed the way firms find customers, customers find information, and people manage social relationships. It contributes significant value to the U.S. economy by creating and maintaining jobs, facilitating the rapid flow of information, and generally enabling the growth and prosperity of businesses.

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  • 5 Restoration Ecology Restoration ecology is a subdiscipline of ecological engineering that has been growing out of the need and desire to add ecological value to ecosystems that have been degraded by human impacts.

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  • As resources become scarce, they become more valuable. Value is evidenced both by the increasing prices of resources and by controversy over resource allocation and management. From forest harvesting and land use conversion throughout North America, to the fragmentation of tropical bird habitat, to acid rain deposition in Eastern Europe, to Siberian tiger habitat loss in Russia, people have significantly affected the ecosystems of the world. Expanding population pressures continue to cause the price of resources to increase and to intensify conflicts over resource allocation....

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  • Soil provides a list of services to all users of terrestrial ecosystems and is crucial to our agricultural societies. From an anthropogenic point of view, soil quality may be then measured in terms of the services the soil provides to our society. The value of soil services to human societies has changed during history and thus the value we give to soils has also changed over time as it depends upon the economic and cultural basis of a society for a given context. While throughout history human awareness of the soil services has been mainly reduced to food, fibre and...

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