Vapor pressure

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  • There are many contents in this book: physical properties of pure substances, vapor pressures of pure substances, vapor pressures of solutions, physical and chemical data, water-vapor content of gases, densities of pure substances, densities of aqueous inorganic solutions at 1 atm, densities of aqueous organic solutions, densities of miscellaneous materials, physical and chemical data, specific heats of miscellaneous materials, properties of formation and, combustion reactions.

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  • MAJOR REFINERY PRODUCTS 1. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG): which consists principally of propane and butane, is used as domestic fuel and is an intermediate material in the manufacture of petrochemicals. 2. Solvents: These include benzene, toluene and xylene. 3. Gasoline: is the most important refinery product with boiling ranges from ambient temperatures to about 200°C. The important qualities for gasoline are octane number, volatility, sulfur content and vapor pressure.

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  • Gas chromatography – chromatography using a gas as the mobile phase and a solid/liquid as a stationary phase – In GC, the analytes migrate in the gas phase, so their boiling point plays a role – GC is generally applicable to compounds with masses up to about 500 Da and with ~60 torr vapor pressure at room temp (polar functional groups are trouble) Supercritical fluid chromatography – chromatography using a supercritical fluid as the mobile phase and a solid/liquid as a stationary phase – In SFC, the analytes are solvated in the supercritical fluid – SFC is applicable to a much ...

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  • Concentrations of VOCs generated indoors may be presumed to decrease proportionally in response to increases in house ventilation. This has been documented in a new, unoccupied house for those VOCs with the highest vapor pressures (Hodgson et al., 2000). However, within chemical classes, the effectiveness of ventilation for reducing concentrations generally decreases with decreasing volatility (ibid.).

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  • At one time, computational chemistry techniques were used only by experts extremely experienced in using tools that were for the most part di½cult to understand and apply. Today, advances in software have produced programs that are easily used by any chemist. Along with new software comes new literature on the subject. There are now books that describe the fundamental principles of computational chemistry at almost any level of detail.

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  • 5A, 4A and 3A zeolites were successfully prepared using solid seeds at pilot scale. The adsorption properties of 5A, 4A and 3A zeolites were determined by adsorption isotherm method. The results showed that water adsorption capacity and rate of 5A and 4A zeolites were higher than those of 3A zeolite. Even at low vapor pressure of water of 4 mmHg, adsorption capacity of 5A, 4A and 3A zeolites also reached about 23%, 22% and 17%, respectively, and was much higher than that of silicagel (5%).

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  • Helicopter aerodynamics is the branch of physics dealing with the forces and pressures exerted by air in motion. The atmosphere, the mass of air, which completely envelops the earth, is composed of varying and nonvarying constituents. The nonvarying constituents include oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (78%). The varying constituents include CO2, argon, hydrogen, helium, neon, krypton, and water vapor, which will vary from negligible amounts to approximately 4% by volume (100% relative humidity). Air is a fluid and is affected by changes in temperature, pressure, and humidity....

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  • VACUUM DISTILLATION TOWER In order to further distill the residuum from the atmospheric tower at higher temperatures, reduced pressure is required to prevent thermal cracking. The process takes place in one vacuum distillation tower. The principles of vacuum distillation resemble those of fractional distillation and, except that larger-diameter columns are used to maintain comparable vapor velocities at the reduced pressures, the equipment is also similar.

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  • HEAT EXCHANGER TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION 52.1.1 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 52.1.2 Plate-Type Heat Exchangers 52.1.3 Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers 52. 1 .4 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers 52.1.5 Compact Heat Exchangers 52.1.6 Boiler Feedwater Heaters 52.1.7 Recuperators and Regenerators ESTIMATION OF SIZE AND COST 52.2.1 Basic Equations for Required Surface 52.2.2 Mean Temperature Difference 52.2.3 Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient 52.2.4 Pressure Drop RATINGMETHODS 52.3.1 Shell and Tube Single-Phase Exchangers 52.3.2 Shell and Tube Condensers 52.3.3 Shell and Tube Reboilers and Vaporizers. ...

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  • PART 4 ENERGY, POWER, AND POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY p H o U 3 ; I £ 5 D 2 " 0 GO 2 H o rn £ f| |* ?f!5 Ssfcp "Hlr F | | | s^l.^ | "I a 5 co 1 I TABLE 39.1 TABLE 39.2 CONVERSION FACTORS TABLE 39.9 1247 PHASE TRANSITION DATA FOR THE ELEMENTS 1247 PHASE TRANSITION DATA FOR COMPOUNDS 1249 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SATURATED MERCURY 1259 TABLE 39.3 FIGURE 39.2 ENTHALPY-LOG PRESSURE DIAGRAM FOR MERCURY TABLE 39.10 TABLE 3 . THERMODYNAMIC 94 PROPERTIES OF LIQUID AND SATURATED VAPOR AIR 1251 TABLE 39.

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  • A mathemalical model is presented that describes heat and moisture transfer during the holpressing of MDF. The model includes conduction of heat between the press platens and the central layer of the mattress, phase change of water from the adsorbed to the vapor state and the convective heat and mass transfer through the edges of the mattress. This approach results in a three-dimensional unsleady-state problem in which the properties of the wood fibers, water and the wood-water system are dependent on temperature, mattress moisture content and steam pressure.

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