Variational techniques

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  • The signal processing task is a very critical issue in the majority of new technological inventions and challenges in a variety of applications in both science and engineering fields. Classical signal processing techniques have largely worked with mathematical models that are linear, local, stationary, and Gaussian. They have always favored closed-form tractability over real-world accuracy.

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  • Many mechanics and physics problems have variational formulations making them appropriate for numerical treatment by finite element techniques and efficient iterative methods. This book describes the mathematical background and reviews the techniques for solving problems, including those that require large computations such as transonic flows for compressible fluids and the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids.

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  • Washes The most basic watercolor technique is the flat wash. It is produced by first wetting the area of paper to be covered by the wash, then mixing sufficient pigment to easily fill the entire area. The pigment is applied to a sloping surface in slightly overlapping horizontal bands from the top down. Once complete the wash should be left to dry and even itself out don't be tempted to work back into a drying wash, the results are usually disastrous! A variation on the basic wash is the graded wash. This technique requires the pigment to be diluted...

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  • Bayesian approaches have been shown to reduce the amount of overfitting that occurs when running the EM algorithm, by placing prior probabilities on the model parameters. We apply one such Bayesian technique, variational Bayes, to the IBM models of word alignment for statistical machine translation.

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  • Variational EM has become a popular technique in probabilistic NLP with hidden variables. Commonly, for computational tractability, we make strong independence assumptions, such as the meanfield assumption, in approximating posterior distributions over hidden variables. We show how a looser restriction on the approximate posterior, requiring it to be a mixture, can help inject prior knowledge to exploit soft constraints during the variational E-step. We show that empirically, injecting prior knowledge improves performance on an unsupervised Chinese grammar induction task. ...

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  • Language variationists study how languages vary along geographical or social lines or along lines of age and gender. Variationist data is available and challenging, in particular for DIALECTOLOGY, the study of geographical variation, which will be the focus of this paper, although we present approaches we expect to transfer smoothly to the study of variation correlating with other extralinguistic variables.

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  • When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to: Compute and interpret the range, the mean deviation, the variance, the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation of ungrouped data;

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  • Tham khảo sách 'recent advances in signal processing_2', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, kĩ thuật viễn thông phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The determination of enzyme AChE continues to be widely used to measure the exposure to OF and C, however, interpretations of results are highly variable, since there are genetic and physiological causes as well as associated pathologies, which can decrease the levels of this enzyme (Varona et al, 2007).

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  • This is because IT uses primers based on allele sequences of functionally characterized genes, and thus specific banding patterns corresponding to plant phenotypes can be identified (Cernák, 2008; Cernák et al., 2008; Gizaw, 2011). However, development of such markers depends on the availability of robust genomic databases holding several target sequences for IT marker development. Functional gene characterization criteria might be limiting factors, since it is not possible to establish gene functions in a molecular ecological sense for all genes.

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  • In conclusion, the results reported herewith show a significant relationship between epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, but coefficients of variation were considerably lower for bacterial counts estimated by flow cytometry than epifluorescence microscopy. Generally, the use of flow cytometry in marine microbiology reduces the processing time of the sample and increases the number of processed samples.

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  • The state-of-the-art of controlled radical polymerization (CRP) in 2011 is presented. Atom transfer radical polymerization, stable radical mediated polymerization, and degenerate transfer processes, including reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer are the most often used CRP procedures. CRP opens new avenues to novel materials from a large range of monomers. Detailed structure-reactivity relationships and mechanistic understanding not only helps attain a better controlled polymerization but enables preparation of polymers with complex architectures.

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  • Polymerase Chain Reaction is widely held as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century in molecular biology. Small amounts of the genetic material can now be amplified to be able to a identify, manipulate DNA, detect infectious organisms, including the viruses that cause AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, detect genetic variations, including mutations, in human genes and numerous other tasks.

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  • Extent of knowledge sharing: Related to the above problem is the question of how much knowledge is available to the system during its query optimization process. In particular, the first step in choosing a query evaluation strategy is likely to be identifying which nodes have materialized views that can speed query processing. A simple technique would be to use a centralized catalog of all available views and their locations, analogous to the central directory used by Napster. Yet this model introduces a single point of failure and a potential scalability bottleneck.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Wiener-Hopf Equations Technique for General Variational Inequalities Involving Relaxed

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  • Cross drawings are as old as time. They have been around even before Christ and Christianity. The cross symbolizes life, immortality,union of the heavens and earth and the sun and stars. It's no wonder so many people select this image as a tattoo. It is arguably the most widely used image in both ancient and modern tattoos. Throughout history each culture has reinvented and redesigned this sacred image leaving us with many different versions. There are many variations of cross drawings which I will display below. Again as with tattoos and other drawings, personal taste and style rules all....

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  • Materials: 2B, 3B or 4B pencil and paper. When you draw a portrait from life, you need to record the subtle variations of the features which make that individual's face unique. There are three basic stages in the creation of this image: 1. Using line drawing to organise the position, shape and proportion of the features. 2. Using softly shaded tone to create the form and texture of each feature. 3. Using larger areas of tone to unite all the elements of the portrait.

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  • Tribal drawings can be dated back as far as 2000BC in Egypt in the hieroglyphs of the high Priestess. They are found all over the world and in almost every culture. While you may have a specific idea of what a tribal drawing is almost all tattoos can be considered tribal. Most Popular Types Some of the most popular designs are from the Maori, Haida and Polynesian cultures. Many consider the Polynesians to be the originators of the ritual know today and all others are just derivatives and variations of them. The most common drawings include the long thick...

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  • Prenatal diagnosis, traditionally used as a synonymous for invasive fetal testing and evaluation of chromosomal constellation, presently encompasses many other issues like pedigree analyses, fetal risk assessment, population screening, genetic counseling and fetal diagnostic testing as well. Ultrasound guided chorionic villus samling (CVS), amniocentesis and, to a lesser extent, fetal blood sampling are used routinely in fetal medicine units. Other fetal tissue biopsies such as skin, liver and muscle biopsy are used only rarely.

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  • In the quest for knowledge, it is not uncommon for researchers to push the limits of simulation techniques to the point where they have to be adapted or totally new techniques or approaches become necessary. True multiscale modeling techniques are becoming increasingly necessary given the growing interest in materials and processes on which large-scale properties are dependent or that can be tuned by their low-scale properties. An example would be nanocomposites, where embedded nanostructures completely change the matrix properties due to effects occurring at the atomic level.

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