Variations

Many mechanics and physics problems have variational formulations making them appropriate for numerical treatment by finite element techniques and efficient iterative methods. This book describes the mathematical background and reviews the techniques for solving problems, including those that require large computations such as transonic flows for compressible fluids and the NavierStokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids.
505p chipmoon 27082012 45 9 Download

There are lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse variations amongst the languages used in various biomedical subdomains. It is important to recognise such differences and understand that biomedical tools that work well on some subdomains may not work as well on others. We report here on the semantic variations that occur in the sublanguages of two biomedical subdomains, i.e. cell biology and pharmacology, at the level of named entity information.
8p bunthai_1 06052013 19 3 Download

Statistical models in machine translation exhibit spurious ambiguity. That is, the probability of an output string is split among many distinct derivations (e.g., trees or segmentations). In principle, the goodness of a string is measured by the total probability of its many derivations. However, ﬁnding the best string (e.g., during decoding) is then computationally intractable. Therefore, most systems use a simple Viterbi approximation that measures the goodness of a string using only its most probable derivation.
9p hongphan_1 14042013 12 2 Download

A twotier model for the description of morphological, syntactic and semantic variations of multiword terms is presented. It is applied to term normalization of French and English corpora in the medical and agricultural domains. Five different sources of morphological and semantic knowledge are exploited (MULTEXT, CELEX, AGROVOC, WordNetl.6, and Microsoft Word97 thesaurus).
8p bunrieu_1 18042013 10 2 Download

Chapter 11  Genomewide variation and trait analysis. This chapter presents the following content: Genetic variation among individual genomes, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smallscalelength variations, deletions or duplications of a DNA region, positional cloning: from DNA markers to diseasecausing genes, genomewide association studies.
41p tangtuy04 12032016 3 2 Download

Chapter 19  Variation and selection in populations. This chapter involves the study of how genetic laws impact the genetic makeup of a population. Mendelian principles are the basis for the HardyWeinberg law which allows one to calculate allele and genotype frequencies from one generation to the next. The HardyWeinberg law can be used only if other forces are not acting on the allele frequency. Those forces include selection, migration, mutation, and population size.
54p tangtuy04 12032016 7 2 Download

Bayesian approaches have been shown to reduce the amount of overﬁtting that occurs when running the EM algorithm, by placing prior probabilities on the model parameters. We apply one such Bayesian technique, variational Bayes, to the IBM models of word alignment for statistical machine translation.
5p nghetay_1 07042013 12 1 Download

Variational EM has become a popular technique in probabilistic NLP with hidden variables. Commonly, for computational tractability, we make strong independence assumptions, such as the meanﬁeld assumption, in approximating posterior distributions over hidden variables. We show how a looser restriction on the approximate posterior, requiring it to be a mixture, can help inject prior knowledge to exploit soft constraints during the variational Estep. We show that empirically, injecting prior knowledge improves performance on an unsupervised Chinese grammar induction task. ...
4p hongphan_1 15042013 17 1 Download

For example, the company name create multilingual translation lexicons with “Sony” is transliterated into “新力” (xinli) in Tairegional variations. We propose a transitive wan and “索尼” (suoni) in mainland China. Such translation approach to determine translation terms, in today’s increasingly internationalized variations across languages that have insuffiworld, are appearing more and more often.
8p bunbo_1 17042013 19 1 Download

Language variationists study how languages vary along geographical or social lines or along lines of age and gender. Variationist data is available and challenging, in particular for DIALECTOLOGY, the study of geographical variation, which will be the focus of this paper, although we present approaches we expect to transfer smoothly to the study of variation correlating with other extralinguistic variables.
8p bunthai_1 06052013 14 1 Download

Tài liệu Variations on the Canon giới thiệu tới các bạn bản nhạc Variations on the Canon. Mời các bạn tham khảo để biết được giai điệu của bản nhạc. Tài liệu phục vụ cho các bạn chuyên ngành Âm nhạc và những bạn quan tâm tới lĩnh vực này.
6p rinngoc 29072016 7 1 Download

The scope of the series covers the entire spectrum of solid mechanics. Thus it includes the foundation of mechanics; variational formulations; computational mechanics; statics, kinematics and dynamics of rigid and elastic bodies; vibrations of solids and structures; dynamical systems and chaos; the theories of elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity; composite materials; rods, beams, shells and membranes; structural control and stability; soils, rocks and geomechanics; fracture; tribology; experimental mechanics; biomechanics and machine design.
215p nguyen8 03122009 208 43 Download

The wide geographical distribution of the rice plant ( Oryza sativa L.) and its long history of cultivation in Asian countries have led to the development of a great diversity of varietal types. Similarly, workers in various ricegrowing countries use different terms to designate identical morphological and physiological characters, agronomic traits, gene symbols, and cultural practices. Whereas varietal diversity in germ plasm is desired in rice breeding, variations in nomenclature hinder scientific communication among the workers.
40p lulanphuong 20032012 74 27 Download

This new text, intended for the senior undergraduate finite element course in mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering departments, gives students a solid, practical understanding of the principles of the finite element method within a variety of engineering applications. Hutton discusses basic theory of the finite element method while avoiding variational calculus, instead focusing upon the engineering mechanics and mathematical background that may be expected of senior engineering students.
0p beobobeo 01082012 49 20 Download

Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Resolvent Iterative Methods for Solving System of Extended General Variational Inclusions
10p sting05 10022012 22 8 Download

The mathematical modeling of microstructures in solids is a fascinating topic that combines ideas from different fields such as analysis, numerical simulation, and materials science. Beginning in the 80s, variational methods have been playing a prominent rˆole in modern theories for microstructures, and surprising developments in the calculus of variations were stimulated by questions arising in this context.
218p chuyenphimbuon 21072012 27 8 Download

Stochastic Calculus of Variations (or Malliavin Calculus) consists, in brief, in constructing and exploiting natural differentiable structures on abstract probability spaces; in other words, Stochastic Calculus of Variations proceeds from a merging of differential calculus and probability theory. As optimization under a random environment is at the heart of mathematical finance, and as differential calculus is of paramount importance for the search of extrema, it is not surprising that Stochastic Calculus of Variations appears in mathematical finance.
147p thuymonguyen88 07052013 37 8 Download

Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Conservation versus variation of dinucleotide frequencies across genomes: Evolutionary implications...
21p thulanh19 09112011 91 7 Download

Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa hoc quốc tế đề tài : Convergence theorems for uniformly quasiasymptotically nonexpansive mappings, generalized equilibrium problems, and variational inequalities
20p dauphong11 06022012 26 7 Download

This book introduces a variety of problem statements in classical optimal control, in optimal estimation and filtering, and in optimal control problems with nonscalarvalued performance criteria. Many example problems are solved completely in the body of the text. All chapterend exercises are sketched in the appendix. The theoretical part of the book is based on the calculus of variations, so the exposition is very transparent and requires little mathematical rigor.
141p kennybibo 14072012 23 7 Download