Many mechanics and physics problems have variational formulations making them appropriate for numerical treatment by finite element techniques and efficient iterative methods. This book describes the mathematical background and reviews the techniques for solving problems, including those that require large computations such as transonic flows for compressible fluids and the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible viscous fluids.
There are lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse variations amongst the languages used in various biomedical subdomains. It is important to recognise such differences and understand that biomedical tools that work well on some subdomains may not work as well on others. We report here on the semantic variations that occur in the sublanguages of two biomedical subdomains, i.e. cell biology and pharmacology, at the level of named entity information.
Statistical models in machine translation exhibit spurious ambiguity. That is, the probability of an output string is split among many distinct derivations (e.g., trees or segmentations). In principle, the goodness of a string is measured by the total probability of its many derivations. However, ﬁnding the best string (e.g., during decoding) is then computationally intractable. Therefore, most systems use a simple Viterbi approximation that measures the goodness of a string using only its most probable derivation.
A two-tier model for the description of morphological, syntactic and semantic variations of multi-word terms is presented. It is applied to term normalization of French and English corpora in the medical and agricultural domains. Five different sources of morphological and semantic knowledge are exploited (MULTEXT, CELEX, AGROVOC, WordNetl.6, and Microsoft Word97 thesaurus).
Chapter 11 - Genome-wide variation and trait analysis. This chapter presents the following content: Genetic variation among individual genomes, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small-scale-length variations, deletions or duplications of a DNA region, positional cloning: from DNA markers to disease-causing genes, genome-wide association studies.
Chapter 19 - Variation and selection in populations. This chapter involves the study of how genetic laws impact the genetic makeup of a population. Mendelian principles are the basis for the Hardy-Weinberg law which allows one to calculate allele and genotype frequencies from one generation to the next. The Hardy-Weinberg law can be used only if other forces are not acting on the allele frequency. Those forces include selection, migration, mutation, and population size.
Bayesian approaches have been shown to reduce the amount of overﬁtting that occurs when running the EM algorithm, by placing prior probabilities on the model parameters. We apply one such Bayesian technique, variational Bayes, to the IBM models of word alignment for statistical machine translation.
Variational EM has become a popular technique in probabilistic NLP with hidden variables. Commonly, for computational tractability, we make strong independence assumptions, such as the meanﬁeld assumption, in approximating posterior distributions over hidden variables. We show how a looser restriction on the approximate posterior, requiring it to be a mixture, can help inject prior knowledge to exploit soft constraints during the variational E-step. We show that empirically, injecting prior knowledge improves performance on an unsupervised Chinese grammar induction task. ...
For example, the company name create multilingual translation lexicons with “Sony” is transliterated into “新力” (xinli) in Tairegional variations. We propose a transitive wan and “索尼” (suoni) in mainland China. Such translation approach to determine translation terms, in today’s increasingly internationalized variations across languages that have insuffiworld, are appearing more and more often.
Language variationists study how languages vary along geographical or social lines or along lines of age and gender. Variationist data is available and challenging, in particular for DIALECTOLOGY, the study of geographical variation, which will be the focus of this paper, although we present approaches we expect to transfer smoothly to the study of variation correlating with other extralinguistic variables.
Tài liệu Variations on the Canon giới thiệu tới các bạn bản nhạc Variations on the Canon. Mời các bạn tham khảo để biết được giai điệu của bản nhạc. Tài liệu phục vụ cho các bạn chuyên ngành Âm nhạc và những bạn quan tâm tới lĩnh vực này.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Psychology themes and variations" has contents: Evolution of psychology, the research enterprise in psychology, the biological bases of behaviour, sensation and perception, variations in consciousness, learning, human memory, language and thought.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Psychology themes and variations" has contents: Intelligence and psychological testing, motivation and emotion, human development across the life span; personality: theory, research, and assessment; stress, coping, and health; psychological disorders; social behaviour.
The scope of the series covers the entire spectrum of solid mechanics. Thus it includes the foundation of mechanics; variational formulations; computational mechanics; statics, kinematics and dynamics of rigid and elastic bodies; vibrations of solids and structures; dynamical systems and chaos; the theories of elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity; composite materials; rods, beams, shells and membranes; structural control and stability; soils, rocks and geomechanics; fracture; tribology; experimental mechanics; biomechanics and machine design.
The wide geographical distribution of the rice
plant ( Oryza sativa L.) and its long history of
cultivation in Asian countries have led to the development
of a great diversity of varietal types.
Similarly, workers in various rice-growing countries
use different terms to designate identical
morphological and physiological characters, agronomic
traits, gene symbols, and cultural practices.
Whereas varietal diversity in germ plasm is desired
in rice breeding, variations in nomenclature hinder
scientific communication among the workers.
This new text, intended for the senior undergraduate finite element course in mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering departments, gives students a solid, practical understanding of the principles of the finite element method within a variety of engineering applications.
Hutton discusses basic theory of the finite element method while avoiding variational calculus, instead focusing upon the engineering mechanics and mathematical background that may be expected of senior engineering students.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Resolvent Iterative Methods for Solving System of Extended General Variational Inclusions
The mathematical modeling of microstructures in solids is a fascinating topic
that combines ideas from different fields such as analysis, numerical simulation,
and materials science. Beginning in the 80s, variational methods have
been playing a prominent rˆole in modern theories for microstructures, and
surprising developments in the calculus of variations were stimulated by questions
arising in this context.
Stochastic Calculus of Variations (or Malliavin Calculus) consists, in brief,
in constructing and exploiting natural differentiable structures on abstract
probability spaces; in other words, Stochastic Calculus of Variations proceeds
from a merging of differential calculus and probability theory.
As optimization under a random environment is at the heart of mathematical
finance, and as differential calculus is of paramount importance for the
search of extrema, it is not surprising that Stochastic Calculus of Variations
appears in mathematical finance.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Conservation versus variation of dinucleotide frequencies across genomes: Evolutionary implications...