This book is published in print and online through the online OAPEN library (www.oapen.org).
OAPEN (Open Access Publishing in European Networks) is a collaborative initiative to
develop and implement a sustainable Open Access publication model for academic books in
the Humanities and Social Sciences. The OAPEN Library aims to improve the visibility and
usability of high quality academic research by aggregating peer reviewed Open Access
publications from across Europe.
The city is a complex amalgamation of numerous phenomena, based on a multiplicity of
dynamic interactions. Due to an increase in density, an almost continuous cooperation
between the inhabitants occurs often resulting in socio-economic improvement. Considering
the constant development of living standards – infrastructure, production and
consumption – the city and urbanization should generally be regarded as something positive
without thereby disguising problems of social inequality and violence.
Multi-carrier modulation, in particular Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing (OFDM), has been successfully applied to a wide variety of
digital communications applications over the past several years. Although
OFDM has been chosen as the physical layer standard for a diversity of
important systems, the theory, algorithms, and implementation techniques
remain subjects of current interest. This is clear from the high volume of
papers appearing in technical journals and conferences.
It was Bertha Pappenheim — the famous “Anna O.” of Josef Breuer’s first
experiments with psychoanalysis, and a pioneer social worker in her own
right — who first named psychotherapy “the talking cure.” And so it is, as
a legion of well-controlled studies documents. Across a surprising variety
of psychotherapeutic approaches, verbal exchanges between client and
therapist can be powerfully curative — except when they aren’t.
Singularity analysis paves the way to the analysis of a large quantity of generating functions, as provided by the symbolic method expounded in Chapters I–III. In this chapter we illustrate this situation with numerous examples related to languages, permutations, trees, and graphs of various sorts. As in chapter 5, most analyses are organized into broad classes called schemas.
A string is enclosed by a pair of ". Unlike symbols, strings may be split into characters
and manipulated by a variety of primitive functions. For example, "abcdef", "This is a
string", and "This is a string with \" inside" are all strings.
A character begins with #\ and has the name of the character. For example, #\a, #\b,
and #\space are characters.
As digital libraries and the World Wide Web (WWW) continue to grow exponentially,
the ability to find useful information will greatly depend on the associated
underlying framework of the indexing infrastructure or search engine. The push to
get information on-line must be mediated by the design of automated techniques for
extracting that information for a variety of users and needs. What algorithms and
software environments are plausible for achieving both accuracy and speed in text
Working with Graphic Styles and Effects
robably some of the most amazing illustrations you see in Illustrator come from using graphic styles and effects. Graphic styles can increase your productivity with any type of repeating symbol or set of attributes that you use daily. Set as a style, you can use it over and over again. Those of you looking to create special effects, look no further. In this chapter, you discover when to use effects. Along with effects, you also see a variety of artwork that combines effects with graphic styles.