Various malignancies

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  • General Aspects of Lymphoid Malignancies Etiology and Epidemiology The relative frequency of the various lymphoid malignancies is shown in Fig. 105-1. Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent form of leukemia in western countries. It occurs most frequently in older adults and is exceedingly rare in children. In 2007, 15,340 new cases were diagnosed in the United States, but because of the prolonged survival associated with this disorder, the total prevalence is many times higher. CLL is more common in men than in women and more common in whites than in blacks.

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  • The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and the patterns of expression of the various subtypes differ geographically. T cell lymphomas are more common in Asia than in western countries, while certain subtypes of B cell lymphomas such as follicular lymphoma are more common in western countries. A specific subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma known as the angiocentric nasal T/natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma has a striking geographic occurrence, being most frequent in Southern Asia and parts of Latin America.

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  • Table 105-6 presents the best documented translocations and associated oncogenes for various subtypes of lymphoid malignancies. In some cases, such as the association of the t(14;18) in follicular lymphoma, the t(2;5) in anaplastic large T/null cell lymphoma, the t(8;14) in Burkitt's lymphoma, and the t(11;14) in mantle cell lymphoma, the great majority of tumors in patients with these diagnoses display these abnormalities. In other types of lymphoma where a minority of the patients have tumors expressing specific genetic abnormalities, the defects may have prognostic significance.

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  • Cancer may constitute the most extensively studied disease entity of our time. Nevertheless, our comprehension of the cellular and molecular pathology of malignant transformation is incomplete. In view of the diverse clinical presentations of various malignancies, doubts may be raised as to whether it is appropriate to refer to cancer as one group of disease states. The notion of malignant tumors as a pathologic and pathophysiologic class of conditions begs the question for defining criteria that characterize all malignant growths, regardless of their tissue of origin....

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  • This fourth revised edition of “Technical Basis of Radiation Therapy: Practical Clinical Applications”, edited by S. H. Levitt, J. A. Purdy, C. A. Perez, and S. Vijaykumar, continues this publication’s outstanding excellence in the definition of the technical advances for radiation therapy. The previous three editions were milestones in the definition of new technologies and how they would be applied in clinical practice.

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  • So ended the editorial entitled “Some Speculations on the Myeloproliferative Syndomes” published in Blood in 1951 by the journal editor, William Dameshek. He speculated that these various conditions, which he had termed “myeloproliferative,” were all somewhat variable manifestations of proliferative activity of the bone marrow cells, perhaps due to “a hitherto undiscovered stimulus.

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  • This primer gives a brief glimpse of available data on health care costs, and summarizes the impact of spending growth on various parts of society. The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), the source for several of the analyses shown, present the costs of care by type of health service or product (such as hospital care, physician services, or prescription drugs), sources of funds (such as private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, or out-of-pocket by the individual patient), and types of sponsors (private business, households, and government).

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  • The Aim of "Current Concepts of General Thoracic Surgery" is to provide a brief overview of several topics in this field. It includes a collection of contributions from many outstanding Authors who provide their knowledge and experience from many countries around the world. We apologize for the chapters reviewed that have were not chosen for publication in this book; however, according to the single centres experience, the final result offers thorough and precious information on the several topics evaluated by the Authors....

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Analysis of limb function after various reconstruction methods according to tumor location following resection of pediatric malignant bone tumors

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  • Combined methods have led to further refinements with, for example, high visuospatial resolution afforded by MRI combined with metabolic information from the lesion site (measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography; FDG-PET) to indicate location and malignancy of gliomas, which in turn informs radiosurgical targeting. Kapsalaki et al. (Chapter 7) consider MRS spectroscopic profiles for differentiation among ring enhancing lesions including high grade gliomas, abscesses and post-radiation necrosis.

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  • Normal cells are cohesive in nature but exfoliated when they attain maturation. During malignant conditions or during infection, the exfoliation becomes exaggerated and the epithelial cells show variation in morphology. Such exfoliated cells, when collected and appropriately stained, give information on the living epithelium from which they are derived. These characteristic cellular and nuclear appearances in cells thrown off from healthy epithelium, differ distinctly from those, derived from inflamed or malignant lesions.

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  • Abnormal uterine bleeding may be caused by: hormonal factors, complications of pregnancy, systemic diseases, endometrial abnormalities (polyps), uterine or cervical problems (leiomyomas), or cancer. The pattern of abnormal bleeding is often very helpful in determining the etiology; thus, a number of terms differentiate the various types of abnormal uterine bleeding. Menorrhagia (hypermenorrhea) is prolonged or heavy menstrual flow that may be further complicated by clots.

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  • The results of lobectomy and pneumonectomy in treating various benign and malignant lesions of lung have been reported. The complications and results of such procedures in the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) have been described in older texts. However these reports have lessened due to the decrease in the number of patients seen over the last decades. Thus, it's not clear that to what extent the advancements seen in surgical and anesthetic procedures were effective in lessening the complications of such procedures.

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  • The function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is dysregu-lated in various types of malignancy as a result of gene amplification, mutations, or abnormally increased ligand production. Therefore, the tyro-sine kinase activity of the EGFR is a promising therapeutic target.

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  • Various systemic diseases (systemic vasculitis-systemic lupus erythematosis, Henoch-Sch¨ onlein purpura, hemolytic ure- mic syndrome, sickle cell disease, and malignancy) and syn- dromes (chromosomal aberrations, Rubinstein-Taybi, Cor- nelia de Lange, and many others) may affect the kidney in childhood [1]. Renal involvement should be excluded in any individual with multisystem disease (collagen disease, diabetes mellitus, and storage diseases). Systemic diseases associated with glomerular abnormalities may present with arthritis, rash, hypertension, hematuria, or proteinuria.

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  • Thea3b1 integrin is an adhesion receptor for extracellular matrix proteins including isoforms of laminin, and the changes of its expression level in various cancer cells are thought to cause their malignant phenotypes. We have cloned an approximately 4 kb DNA fragment of the 5¢-flanking region of the murinea3 integrin gene and analyzed its promoter activity.

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