The science of vascular biology has emerged and expanded rapidly over the past 25
years. Research in this area has increased understanding of a wide range of clinical
conditions. This book provides a broad overview of the Weld for both specialist
and newcomer to the Weld, and concise resource for the non-specialist. The
multidisciplinary team of contributors covers topics ranging from normal and
pathological aspects of endothelial cell function to the role of the vasculature in
pregnancy, hypertension and atherosclerosis....
Metabolic acidosis can occur because of an increase in endogenous acid production (such as lactate and ketoacids), loss of bicarbonate (as in diarrhea), or accumulation of endogenous acids (as in renal failure). Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on the respiratory, cardiac, and nervous systems. The fall in blood pH is accompanied by a characteristic increase in ventilation, especially the tidal volume (Kussmaul respiration). Intrinsic cardiac contractility may be depressed, but inotropic function can be normal because of catecholamine release.
To help ensure that water is safe to drink and to address the nation’s aging drinking water
infrastructure that can impact water quality, $850 million for the Drinking Water State Revolving
Fund will support new infrastructure improvement projects for public drinking water systems in
FY 2013. In concert with the states, the EPA will focus this affordable, flexible financial
assistance to support utility compliance with safe drinking water standards.
Arterial CO2 tension is a powerful modulator of cerebral vascular calibre, CBF and ICP (12-15.)
While the mechanisms are incompletely understood, CO2 relaxes pial arterioles by
interactions between the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, pericytes, adjacent neurons
and glial cells. Studies supported that cerebral vessels are sensitive to changes in
extracellular pH, rather than a direct response to CO2 or bicarbonate. In the limits of
physiological PaCO2, 20-60 mmHg, the relationship between PaCO2 and CBF is linear.