Vascular disorders

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  • The role of the placental bed in normal pregnancy and its complications has been intensively investigated for 50 years, following the introduction of a technique for placental bed biopsy. It is now recognized that disorders of the maternal–fetal interface in humans have been implicated in a broad range of pathological conditions, including spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abruptio placentae, and fetal death.

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  • If you plan to take the Vascular Medicine Board Examination, this book is essential. Presenting the compiled knowledge of experts in the field and emphasizing topics covered on the exam, this concise text: facilitates review and retention of material with questions and answers for each chapter covers topics from multiple perspective through multidisciplinary authorship serves as a convenient quick reference with highlighted bullet points is endorsed by the Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology...

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  • Senescence is a biological process that causes a progressive deterioration of structure and function of all organs chronologically. Recent studies have revealed the detailed molecular mechanisms of senescence using cell culture system and experimental organisms. It is thought that senescence is a potential cause for the development of various age-related disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

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  • Disorders of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System Many disorders of neutrophils extend to mononuclear phagocytes. Thus, drugs that suppress neutrophil production in the bone marrow can cause monocytopenia. Transient monocytopenia occurs after stress or glucocorticoid administration. Monocytosis is associated with tuberculosis, brucellosis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, malaria, and visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar).

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  • Eosinophilia Eosinophilia is the presence of 500 eosinophils per µL of blood and is common in many settings besides parasite infection. Significant tissue eosinophilia can occur without an elevated blood count. A common cause of eosinophilia is allergic reaction to drugs (iodides, aspirin, sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin, penicillins, and cephalosporins). Allergies such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, serum sickness, allergic vasculitis, and pemphigus are associated with eosinophilia. Eosinophilia also occurs in collagen vascular diseases (e.g.

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  • While there are still gaps in understanding pulmonary vasculature, tremendous progress has been made in understanding its functionality, its adaptation to hypoxia, the effects of increased pulmonary vascular resistance on the right ventricular function, and the molecular pathways affected in this process. As a result, there are currently seven therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension and the field is rapidly moving forward, with several novel molecular targets under development.

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  • Neuro-ophthalmology is a subspecialty of neurology and ophthalmology that bridges the gap between eye and brain. This issue of Neurologic Clinics describes the key features and latest information on topics in neuro-ophthalmology of interest to practicing neurologists and, in particular, highlights areas for which referral might be reasonable to neuro-ophthalmologists. A quick review of the table of contents for this issue illustrates the depth and breadth of the neurologic topics that fall within neuro-ophthalmology.

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  • Metabolic and Inflammatory Disorders Acute febrile illnesses may result in vascular damage. This can result from immune complexes containing viral antigens or the viruses themselves. Certain pathogens, such as the rickettsiae causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever, replicate in endothelial cells and damage them. Vascular purpura may occur in patients with polyclonal gammopathies but more commonly in those with monoclonal gammopathies, including Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, multiple myeloma, and cryoglobulinemia.

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  • STROKE IS THE THIRD MOST COMMON CAUSE of death and disability in the US. It is a complex disease, with many causes, many presentations, and many levels of severity. Despite recent medical advances, stroke remains a diffi cult disease to diagnose and treat. In recognition of the importance of this common disorder, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) instituted a new subspecialty examination in 2005.

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  • Researchers have theorized that anti-inflammatory medications may help prevent diseases, such as coronary artery diseases (CAD), cardio vascular diseases (CVD), stroke, colon cancer and Alzheimer’s. Several recent findings from different laboratories in the world employing case-control human studies and/or specific animal models for chronic human diseases support these ideas.

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  • Stroke is a vascular disease for which mortality and morbidity are relatively well-documented because most stroke victims are admitted to hospitals. Trends in stroke mortality, incidence, and prevalence are somewhat similar to those for other cardiovascular conditions. Stroke mortality has been decreasing since the 1960s, but without a consistent decrease in stroke incidence. Stroke incidence has even been reported to have been higher in the 1980s than during the 1970s, and there was no sustained decline in incidence during the 1990s....

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  • The relationship of neuropathologic changes to the clinical status of people with dementia is of paramount importance in devising appropriate therapeutic interventions.

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  • The last quarter of a century has seen dramatic developments in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Besides the pioneering developments in the medical management of cardiovascular disorders the field of interventional cardiology has also emerged as a major discipline with a huge impact on the clinical management of acute coronary syndrome, chronic coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and peripheral vascular and valvular diseases.

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  • In light of the significant and multifaceted role neuronal, vascular, and inflammatory cells play during degenerative disorders, novel studies that elucidate the role of these cells may greatly further our understanding of disease mechanisms for the development of targeted treatments for a wide spectrum of diseases.

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  • Psoriasis (Table 53-2) Psoriasis is one of the most common dermatologic diseases, affecting up to 1% of the world's population. It is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by erythematous, sharply demarcated papules and rounded plaques, covered by silvery micaceous scale. The skin lesions of psoriasis are variably pruritic. Traumatized areas often develop lesions of psoriasis (Koebner or isomorphic phenomenon). Additionally, other external factors may exacerbate psoriasis including infections, stress, and medications (lithium, beta blockers, and antimalarials).

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  • PATHWAY #4 DIABETIC FOOT DISORDERS VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2006 S–29 be present. Hospitalization is required to treat the infection as well as systemic sequelae. Patients with poor vascular status and ischemia have an increased potential for amputation and require prompt consultation for potential revascularization (30, 77, 200). In 2004, the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) developed new guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections (123).

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  • The guideline will not consider management of the fol- lowing clinical presentations, although differential diagno- sis for these conditions and bacterial rhinosinusitis will be discussed: allergic rhinitis, eosinophilic nonallergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, vascular headaches, and migraines.

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  • Systemic causes of nonpalpable purpura fall into several categories, and those secondary to clotting disturbances and vascular fragility will be discussed first. The former group includes thrombocytopenia (Chap. 109), abnormal platelet function as is seen in uremia, and clotting factor defects. The initial site of presentation for thrombocytopenia-induced petechiae is the distal lower extremity.

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  • Abstract Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vascular vitreoretinopathy that affects infants with short gestational age and low birth-weight. The condition is a multifactorial disease and is clinically similar to familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), which is a bilateral hereditary eye disorder affecting full-term infants. Both of them are characterized by the abnormal vessel growth in the vitreous that can lead to vitreoretinal traction, retinal detachment and other complications resulting in blindness.

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  • Angiogenesis is the development of new blood vessels from an existing vascular bed. Normal vascular proliferation occurs only during embryonic development, the female reproductive cycle, and wound repair. Many pathological conditions are characterized by persistent, unregulated angiogenesis, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetic neuropathy. Conversely, inadequate angiogenesis can often lead to chronic pressure ulcers, duodenal ulcers, and myocardial infarction.

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