Vehicle dynamic model

When talking about modelling it is natural to talk about simulation. Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a realworld process or systems over time. The objective is to generate a history of the model and the observation of that history helps us understand how the realworld system works, not necessarily involving the realworld into this process. A system (or process) model takes the form of a set of assumptions concerning its operation.
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Tham khảo sách 'tyre vehicle dynamics 6', kỹ thuật  công nghệ, cơ khí  chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
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Tham khảo sách 'tyre vehicle dynamics 2011', kỹ thuật  công nghệ, cơ khí  chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
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When computing the performance of a vehicle in longitudinal motion (maximum speed, gradeability, fuel consumption, braking, etc.), the vehicle is modelled as a rigid body, or in an even simpler way, as a point mass. The presence of suspensions and the compliance of tires are then neglected and motion is described by a single equation, the equilibrium equation in the longitudinal direction. If the xaxis is assumed to be parallel to the ground, the longitudinal equilibrium equation reduces to m¨ = x ∀i ...
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A basic characteristic of a vehicle structural response in crash testing and model simulation is the “crash signature,” commonly referred to as the crash pulse [1] (numbers refer to references at the end of each chapter). This is the deceleration time history at a point in the vehicle during impact. The crash pulse at a point on the rocker panel at the Bpillar is presumed to identify the significant structural behavior and the gross motion of the vehicle in a frontal impact. Other locations, such as the radiator and the engine, are frequently chosen to record the crash pulse...
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To supplement full scale dynamic testing of vehicle crashworthiness, mathematical models and laboratory tests (such as those using a Hyge sled or a vehicle crash simulator) are frequently employed. The objective of these tests is the prediction of changes in overall safety performance as vehicle structural and occupant restraint parameters are varied. To achieve this objective, it is frequently desirable to characterize vehicle crash pulses such that parametric optimization of the crash performance can be defined.
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In general, it is the BEV (not the )V) that describes the VTV crash severities in a complete manner. Only in the fixed barrier test condition or when the stiffness ratio equals the mass ratio, will BEV (or crash severity index) be the same as )V (or crash momentum index). This relationship can be proved by simply making Rm = Rk and substituting into Eq. (7.52). Then BEV1/Vclose = )V/Vclose = 1/(1+Rm). 7.6.3 Crash Severity Assessment by a Power Curve Model This section presents a model with power curve force deflection, as shown in Fig. 7.28. The model is used...
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A crash pulse is the time history of the response of a vehicle system subjected to an impact or excitation. The dynamic characteristics of the system can be described by using a “hardware” or a “software” model. A “hardware” model is a system consisting of masses interconnected by energy absorbers (springs and dampers). This will be presented in Chapters 4 and 5. The present chapter covers the use of a “software” model utilizing digital convolution theory for crash pulse prediction.
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The solution to a problem with an impact or excitation model having more than two masses and/or any number of nonlinear energy absorbers becomes too complex to solve in a closed form. Then, numerical evaluation and integration techniques are necessary to solve for the dynamic responses. Models such as the two nonisomorphic (with different structural configuration) hybrid or standard solid models, the combination of two hybrid models, and special cases with point masses will be treated first in closedform.
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Impact Effect of Moving Vehicles 56.1 56.2 Mingzhu Duan Quincy Engineering, Inc. 56 56.3 56.4 56.5 Philip C. Perdikaris Case Western Reserve University Introduction Consideration of Impact Effect in Highway Bridge Design Consideration of Impact Effect in Railway Bridge Design Free Vibration Analysis Structural Models • Free Vibration Analysis WaiFah Chen Purdue University Forced Vibration Analysis under Moving Load Dynamic Response Analysis • Summary of Bridge Impact Behavior 56.
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In Chapters 4 and 5, efforts were directed toward analyzing the transient response and parametric relationships of a dynamic system under impact and/or excitation conditions. The basis for modeling such a dynamic system is Newton’s Second Law. In this chapter, the principle of impulse and momentum and the principle of energy derived from Newton’s Second Law are utilized to solve impulsive loading problems. The solutions to such dynamic problems do not directly involve the time variable. On the subject of impulse and momentum, the basic principles are reviewed first.
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Equating the total energy at the start and end (potential and kinetic) yields: (6.66) which is a quadratic in * and can be rearranged as follows: (6.67) Given the values of W = 5 lbs, h = 3.0 feet and k = 20 lbs/ft, *S = 5/20 = 0.25 ft. Substituting this in the above equation gives for the maximum deformation * = 1.5 feet or 6 *S. 6.5.2.2 Drop Test Using a Spring Having Finite Weight Let us repeat the drop test, but now assume that the bar has appreciable mass, Wb, as shown in Fig. 6.41. The uniform barmass model is...
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The study of braking on straight road is performed using mathematical models similar to those seen in Chapter 23 for longitudinal dynamics. But in this case, the presence of suspensions and the compliance of tires are neglected and the motion is described by the longitudinal equilibrium equation (23.1) alone m¨ = x ∀i Fxi . Apart from cases in which the vehicle is slowed by the braking eﬀect of the engine, which can dissipate a nonnegligible power (lower part of the graph of Fig. 22.
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Over the past several years, the automobile industry has been in a period of dramatic turbu lence. There have been large movements in gasoline prices, taking retail prices to their highest real values ever (Energy Information Administration, Short Term Energy Outlook, January 2007). The Ford F150 pickup fell from its longstanding position as the highest selling car in the U.S. in favor of the Honda Civic (Automotive News, June 5, 2008), while GM lost its position to Toyota as the worldwide leader in new car sales (Barron's, January 21, 2009).
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Current average fuel economy levels vary consid erably by country. Across the OECD the average figure in 2005 was around 8 litres per 100 km for new cars (including SUVs and minivans and in cluding both gasoline and diesel vehicles). With a 50% fuel economy improvement, the average new car performance in OECD markets would improve to around 4 litres per 100 km (about 90 g/km of CO2).
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So far, hybridtesting research has centered on drymill production, the lower investment technique of choice for the new cooperatively owned plants. The seed companies are targeting their incentive programs on dry mills. Monsanto’s program, “Fuel Your Profits,” provides the participating ethanol plant with hightech equipment that profiles the genetics of incoming corn and is calibrated to maximize ethanol yield (Rutherford). As an incentive, Monsanto gives rebates on E85 vehicles (those designed to run on 85%ethanol fuel) and fueling stations.
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Less than twenty years ago photolithography and medicine were total strangers to one another. They had not yet met, and not even looking each other up in the classiﬁeds. And then, nucleic acid chips, microﬂuidics and microarrays entered the scene, and rapidly these strangers became indispensable partners in biomedicine. As recently as ten years ago the notion of applying nanotechnology to the ﬁght against dis ease was dominantly the province of the ﬁction writers.
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26 Mobile Robotic Systems 26.1 26.2 Introduction Fundamental Issues Deﬁnition of a Mobile Robot • Stanford Cart • Intelligent Vehicle for Lunar/Martian Robotic Missions • Mobile Robots — Nonholonomic Systems Nenad M. Kircanski University of Toronto 26.3 26.4 Dynamics of Mobile Robots Control of Mobile Robots 26.1 Introduction This subsection is devoted to modeling and control of mobile robotic systems. Because a mobile robot can be used for exploration of unknown environments due to its partial or complete autonomy is of fundamental importance.
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SYMMETRY CONSIDERATIONS Motor vehicles, like most machines, have a general bilateral symmetry. Only hypotheses can be advanced to explain why this occurs. Certainly to have a symmetry plane simpliﬁes the study of the dynamic behavior of the system, for it can be modelled, within certain limits, using uncoupled equations. However, the reason is likely to be above all an aesthetic one: symmetry is considered an essential feature in most deﬁnitions of beauty.
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During the last few years the Internet has grown tremendously and has penetrated all aspects of everyday life. Starting off as a purely academic research network, the Internet is now extensively used for education, for entertainment, and as a very promising and dynamic marketplace, and is envisioned as evolving into a vehicle of true collaboration and a multipurpose working environment.
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