The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) dates back to the end of the fifties of the last
century when Dantzig and Ramser set the mathematical programming formulation and
algorithmic approach to solve the problem of delivering gasoline to service stations. Since
then the interest in VRP evolved from a small group of mathematicians to the broad range
of researchers and practitioners, from different disciplines, involved in this field today
If you’re a regular reader of Packet®, you’ve no doubt noticed our new look. Packet has
been redesigned to match a new look and feel that has been incorporated throughout all
of Cisco’s communications vehicles. From the commercials you see on TV, to the boxes
that deliver your latest networking components, the company is adhering to a cohesive
design philosophy that is collectively referred to in marketing circles as a corporate identity
Huaqun Guo has introduced the emerging areas of vehicular networks in the forms of Intra-Vehicle, Vehicleto-
Vehicle, and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communications and edited this new book to reflect the advance
information technologies that shape the modern automobiles. These new technologies on automotive informatics
and communicative systems will enable a variety of applications for safety, traffic efficiency, driver
assistance, as well as infotainment to be incorporated into modern automobile designs...
Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead–acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead–acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg−1 , 30 Wh kg−1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. ...
After the large-scale disasters that we have witnessed in the recent past, it has become apparent that complex and coordinated emergency management systems are required for efficient and effective relief efforts. Such management systems can only be developed by involving many scientists and practitioners from multiple fields.
Headway is a key input in calculating the overall route capacity of any transit system. A system that requires large headways has more empty space than passenger capacity, which lowers the total number of passengers or cargo quantity being transported for a given length of line (railroad or highway, for instance). In this case, the capacity has to be improved through the use of larger vehicles. On the other end of the scale, a system with short headways, like cars on a freeway, can offer very large capacities even though the vehicles carry few passengers....
Conventional project evaluation tends to exaggerate highway expansion economic
benefits by ignoring induced travel effects (Hodge, Weisbrod and Hart 2003; Litman
2007a). Urban traffic congestion tends to maintain equilibrium; it gets bad enough to
discourage further growth in peak-period vehicle trips.
My previous work, Making Civil Rights Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme
Court, 1936-1961 (Oxford University Press, 1994), examines Marshall's legal
career before his appointment to the federal bench in 1961. The first chapter of
this book describes Marshall's route to the Supreme Court from 1961 to 1967. The
remainder of the book uses Marshall's experience on the Supreme Court as a
vehicle for examining the Court as a whole during his tenure.
The latest Cyber Navi has a variety of advanced functions to support comfortable driving. The AR
HUD View function displays information in the AR HUD unit, such as information about the route and
the distance to the vehicle ahead, in a way that is easy to understand. The Parking Watcher function
downloads information in real-time to show the latest information about car park congestion in the
navigation screen. There is also a function that detects and displays speed limit signs, notifying the
driver with a sound effect when a sign is detected.
We measured and tested whether the following variables affect walking (basis:
200m buffer around each child's shortest walking path): number of busy intersections
crossed, intersection and street density, total daily vehicle-miles traveled, average
vehicle speed along the route, population density, and land use (R Wilson, 2008).
Sidewalk coverage data do not exist for Roseville and could not be tested in the model.
We refined the model through systematic testing of independent variables as the differ-
ence in log-likelihood ratios.
According to legislation introduced in 2001, Switzerland is already paying to install
low-noise systems in its national railway vehicles.
Vehicles ﬁ tted with noise-reducing technologies are refunded 0.01 CHF per axle
kilometre travelled in Switzerland. This translates into a €7.50 bonus for a typical
four-axle wagon on the 300 km Basel-Chiasso line, an important link in the Germany-
Italy transit route.
A complete freight train with composite brake blocks gets a €93 refund, which is 5%
of the total track access charge.
Large numbers of HSTs will be displaced from the GWML and ECML assuming that the initial
IEP contract of around 550 vehicles is signed. If the IEP order is no greater than this, HSTs
will however continue to operate beyond CP5 on parts of the GWML and on other routes,
for which refurbishment and re-engineering works would be required. Cancellation or major
delay to IEP would require a fall back strategy for intercity services on the electrified GWML.
The ‘surplus’ of vehicles in this category is likely to consist of HST and Mark III vehicles built