As already stated, a road vehicle on pneumatic tires cannot maintain a given trajectory under the eﬀect of external perturbations unless managed by some control device, which is usually a human driver. Its stability solely involves such state variables as the sideslip angle β and the yaw velocity r. In the case of two-wheeled vehicles the capsize motion is intrinsically unstable forcing the driver not only to control the trajectory but stabilize the vehicle. A possible scheme of the vehicle-driver system is shown in Fig. 27.1.
The models seen in the previous chapters dealt with vehicles that maintain their symmetry plane more or less perpendicular to the ground; i.e. they move with a roll angle that is usually small. Moreover, the pitch angle was also assumed to be small, with the z axis remaining close to perpendicular to the ground. Since pitch and roll angles are small, stability in the small can be studied by linearizing the equations of motion in a position where θ = φ = 0. Two-wheeled vehicles are an important exception. Their roll angle is deﬁned by equilibrium considerations and, particularly at...
During the last twenty years since the first commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs),
there has been ever continuing improvements in their performance, such as specific charge/
discharge capacity, cycle stability, and safety, according to the practical demands from
Some pension funds and other institutional investors have already expressed their interest in - or
indeed already are - investing in climate change related assets. Consequently, various industry groups have
been formed in order to increase industry expertise in this area and to engage in a dialogue with
governments to explain the sort of investment environment and financing vehicles which are necessary to
support their greater engagement. They are also exploring how to pool resources in order to achieve the
scale which investment in some of these projects requires. ...
• STRUCTURAL VIEW
4x2 TENSION ROD UPPER ARM STABILIZER LOWER ARM TORSION BAR APRING 4x4 SHOCK ABSORBER TORSION BAR SPRING
UPPER ARM SHOCK ABSORBER LOWER ARM
• STRUCTURAL VIEW
4X4 SHOCK ABSORBER
• FRONT ONLY
FRONT WHEEL ALIGNMENT
• CAMBER AND CASTER
SHIM FOR CAMBER ADJUSTMENT SHIM FOR CASTER ADJUSTMENT
• MAXIMUM STEERING ANGLE
4x2 4x4 4 4
Long-Term Expression in Genetic Disease: In Vivo Gene Transfer with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vectors
Recombinant AAV vectors have emerged as attractive gene delivery vehicles for genetic disease. Engineered from a small replication-defective DNA virus, they are devoid of viral coding sequences and trigger very little immune response in experimental animals. They are capable of transducing nondividing target cells, and the donated DNA is stabilized primarily in an episomal form, thus minimizing risks associated with insertional mutagenesis.
Using a more control-oriented terminology, the point-to-point motion task is
a stabilization problem for an (equilibrium) point in the robot state space. For a
car-like robot, two control inputs are available for adjusting four conguration
variables, namely the two cartesian coordinates characterizing the position of
a reference point on the vehicle, its orientation, and the steering wheels angle.
More in general, for a car-like robot towing N trailers, we have two inputs for
reconguring n = 4+N states.
The taxanes include paclitaxel and docetaxel. These agents differ from the vinca alkaloids in that the taxanes stabilize microtubules against depolymerization. The "stabilized" microtubules function abnormally and are not able to undergo the normal dynamic changes of microtubule structure and function necessary for cell cycle completion. Taxanes are among the most broadly active antineoplastic agents for use in solid tumors, with evidence of activity in ovarian cancer, breast cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and lung tumors.
There are 4 million miles of roads in the United States. One hundred
years ago, roads were primarily unpaved and had half the number of
miles of the present U.S. road system. As the system grew, roads became
wider and more complex structurally to provide for more and heavier
traffic. New construction technology and greater structural stability
were needed to improve the road system.
All phases of road development—from construction and use by vehicles
to maintenance—affect physical and chemical soil conditions, water
flow, and air and water quality.
The United States, however, cannot be a regulatory island among competing nations of the world.
In an international marketplace of multinational corporations, instant transfers of wealth,
lightning fast communications, and globalized trading systems for equities and securities, if U.S.
regulations are anomalous or significantly more “burdensome” than those in other industrialized
nations, business and transactions could migrate toward other markets. Hence, many have
emphasized the need to coordinate regulatory changes among nations.
The agency has also proposed establishing a new safety standard (FMVSS No. 126) to require
electronic stability control (ESC) on all light duty passenger vehicles beginning in MY 2009.
ESC can prevent a large percentage of loss-of-control crashes which expose vehicles to the off-
road tripping mechanisms that cause most rollovers. By reducing exposure to run-off-the-road
crashes, an ESC requirement would result in a large reduction in rollover fatalities.