In the 1970s, IBM developed a product called SEQUEL, or Structured English
Query Language, which ultimately became SQL, the Structured Query Language.
IBM, along with other relational database vendors, wanted a standardized method
for accessing and manipulating data in a relational database. Over the decades,
many competing languages have allowed programmers and developers to access
and manipulate data. However, few have been as easy to learn and as universally
accepted as SQL.
This book is intended for Information Technology (IT) professionals who
have been hearing about or have been tasked to evaluate, learn or
implement data warehousing technologies.
Far from being just a passing fad, data warehousing technology has grown
much in scale and reputation in the past few years, as evidenced by the
increasing number of products, vendors, organizations, and yes, even
books, devoted to the subject. Enterprises that have successfully
implemented data warehouses find it strategic and often wonder how they
ever managed to survive without it in the past....
The introductory chapters in this book (Chapters 1–4) provide an overview of SQL, SQL built-in functions,
UDFs, and major vendor implementations of RDBMS and SQL functions. These chapters are meant to
serve as an introduction to SQL function architecture and concepts for those readers who need to increase
their knowledge and sharpen their skills.
Lean production is based on the logic that nothing will be produced until it is needed. Need is created by an actual demand for the product. When an item is sold, in theory, the market pulls a replacement from the last position in the system or final assembly. This triggers an order to the production line which generates orders at upstream work stations. Lean demands high levels o quality at each stage of the process, strong vendor relations, and a fairly predictable demand for the end product.
Clinical trials enable scientific discoveries to advance patient care, and
they also inform and guide subsequent research. The National Cancer Institute
(NCI) supports the largest U.S. network of clinical trials of any type, of
which the largest component is the Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program
(informally known as the Cooperative Group Program). It currently
comprises 10 Groups that involve more than 3,100 institutions and 14,000
investigators who enroll more than 25,000 patients in clinical trials each
548 Making Key Strategic Decisions
materials. Lastly, some companies use EDI to transmit their invoices and then to receive the subsequent payments. While industries use different versions of EDI in different ways, their goals are always the same: minimize the processing time and lower inventory costs and overhead expenses. An industry organization in Washington, D.C.
Network management is the poor cousin of network design and implementation.
All too often it is treated as an inconvenience by equipment manufacturers, or
forgotten entirely. But the ability to manage network devices is fundamental to
their utility, and a successful and functional network can only be built from equipment
that can be easily managed and operated.
Management refers to the ability to confi gure, control, operate, and diagnose
equipment. Of course, no vendor ships devices that cannot be managed, but
typically each is operated and controlled in a different way.
A comprehensive guide to help you cut through the hype in order to select the best E-Learning tools and vendors for your specific needs. With its ability to both reduce operating costs and train more people, E-Learning is an attractive option for companies that are trying to balance business and educational goals. But in order to implement an E-Learning program, you'll have to wade through hundreds of learning management systems, learning content management systems, authoring schools, and collaboration environments to determine what solution will work best for your situation.
The beneﬁts of software deﬁned radios (SDR) are identiﬁed in many chapters of this book. SDR will potentially permit new protocols, applications, and air interface waveforms to be ﬂexibly and even dynamically deployed across a variety of implementation platforms and products, sourced from multiple vendors. It will bring the beneﬁts of open standards that have been enjoyed in the PC world to the arena of wireless communications.
System R itself was never produced commercially, but directly led
to the development of SQL/DS (1981 running under DOS/VE OS, a
VM version followed in 1982) which was IBM’s first commercial
• IBM however, did not produce the first commercial implementation
of a relational DBMS. That honor went to Oracle (Relational
Software) in 1979.
• Today, the relational DBMS system of virtually all vendors is based
• Each vendor provides all the standard features of SQL. Most
vendors also provide additional features of their own, called
extensions to standard SQL.
Because these subsystems are implemented in SAS TK, they can be installed inside the DBMSs offered by the major
DBMS vendors. They are then available to perform some or all of the processing requested by the client. For example,
when SAS procedures push down SQL, or when some other SAS process is requested from a client, the processing
occurs inside the DBMS where the subsystems are deployed. Appropriate output is returned to the calling client, a SAS
session, for example, thereby reducing data movement.
In a previous example, we saw that PROC FREQ can push an SQL statement to...
Facing aggressive implementation deadlines, rapid
deployment of new technologies, and fewer
trained technical resources; service providers often
struggle to gain return on network investments.
What they need is a single point of contact to
drive accountability throughout the design,
planning, and execution phases of projects.
Fortunately, ADC has the extensive, multi-vendor
product knowledge to quickly build a fully
functional network that helps provision services,
limit costs, and generate revenues....
However, designing and implementing a successful ITC program presents several challenges.
First, tax-credit benefits cannot be captured by government agencies, nonprofits, and schools
because these entities have no state tax liability. Making a comparable grant or other type of
cash incentive available to these organizations would help ensure equity among sectors.
Some DoS attacks can be avoided by applying vendor patches to affected software. For
example, many vendors have patched their IP implementations to prevent intruders from
taking advantage of the IP reassembly bugs. A few DoS attacks cannot be stopped, but their
scope of affected areas can be constrained.
Oracle has focused development around a single source code model since 1983.
While each database implementation includes some operating system–specific
source code at very low levels in order to better leverage specific platforms, the inter-
faces that users, developers, and administrators deal with for each version are consis-