Xem 1-3 trên 3 kết quả Vertical barriers
  • Engineered barriers to isolate potentially harmful waste from humans and ecosystems have been used for over 35 years, and much has been written about them and their constituent components. However, few reports have provided an overall assessment of the performance of engineered barrier systems. The last broad assessment was conducted in 1995 (Rumer and Mitchell, 1995). Since that time, new materials and sensor technologies have been introduced and models to predict contaminant transport have improved.

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  • It is important to note, however, that no matter how or if they change, UN agencies and other global entities can only be as useful as individual governments allow them to be. The agencies serve the governments, which have ultimate responsibility for overseeing service provision for their citizens. Global partners can and should offer extensive support to governments that show a clear interest in developing realistic policies and programmes to reduce vertical transmission.

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  • Qian, Roland, and Xu (2005) and Roland (2000:56-65) capture the stylized difference of Russian and Chinese coordination in their modeling of U-form and M-form organizations. Soviet, vertically-integrated branch divisions represented U-form structures formed along functional lines, while in China, regionally-decentralized, M- form structures could coordinate activities across all industries in a single region. These decentralized arrangements reduced information costs, facilitated small-scale experimentation, and contributed to China’s increased flexibility.

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