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Gate valves are classified as either rising stem or nonrising stem valves. For the nonrising stem
gate valve, the stem is threaded on the lower end into the gate. As the hand wheel on the stem
is rotated, the gate travels up or down the stem on the threads while the stem remains vertically
stationary. This type valve will almost always have a pointer-type indicator threaded onto the
upper end of the stem to indicate valve position. Figures 2 and 3 illustrate rising-stem gate
valves and nonrising stem gate valves.
This research shows the influence of pile cap on bearing capacity of pile foundation, especially pile groups of shaft resistance. Using PLAXIS-3D FOUNDATION sofware to simulate a actual application with 4 piles in groups and assumption for 7 stiffness modulus of soil under pile cap. The output calculation expresses that in both the cap and the pile carrying the load. The cap is necessary to spread the vertical and horizontal loads and any overturning moments to all the piles in group and transfer load to soil underneath.
There are four types of cutaneous melanoma (Table 83-2). In three of these—superficial spreading melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lentiginous melanoma—the lesion has a period of superficial (so-called radial) growth during which it increases in size but does not penetrate deeply. It is during this period that the melanoma is most capable of being cured by surgical excision. The fourth type—nodular melanoma—does not have a recognizable radial growth phase and usually presents as a deeply invasive lesion, capable of early metastasis.