Viable but nonculturable

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  • With the great voyages in the fifteenth century it became necessary to evaluate the damage caused by the potential loss of ships. Emerges then the term risk, with connotations similar to what is meant today, but the understanding of its causes was related to accidents and, therefore, impossible to predict. The development of classical probability theory, in the midseventeenth century, to solve problems related to gambling, allowed the start of the process of quantifying the risks, but the causes were still credited to chance....

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  • This guide does not go into detail about how local and state health departments will function in a public health emergency because every state and locality does things differently. Although all public health departments share similar functions and a philosophy about serving the public, the federal government does not mandate how state and local health departments are structured. All states have a state health department, but the exact services that are offered and how they are administered vary greatly across the country.

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  • The regional effects on agricultural income follow from price and quantity impacts on the input and output side. The bottom line in terms of agricultural income is crucially determined by the impacts on revenues from raw milk and meats and related impacts on non fodder items. While fodder activities are important for a detailed analysis, no significant effect on income can be observed since revenues and costs tend to cancel each other.

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  • For progress to be maintained in a clinical field like sleep medicine, unimpeded, unrestricted access to data and the advances in clinical practice should be available. The reason this book is exciting is that it breaks down the barriers to dissemination of information. Researchers at the forefront of areas that have limited funding can find it difficult to get data from randomised, double-blind, (placebo-controlled), crossover or parallel group studies, etc., and so may be limited to the lowest level of scientific research, i.e. single case, or restricted observational series....

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  • Be sides pro vid ing food, the driv ing force be- hind in creased live stock pro duc tion, live stock have other valu able uses. Live stock re main the most im- por tant if not the sole form of non hu man power avail able to poor farm ers in much of the de vel op ing world. The poor, in par ticu lar, use fer til izer from live stock op era tions, es pe cially when ris ing pe tro- leum prices make chemi cal fer til iz ers un af ford able. Live stock also store value and pro vide in sur...

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  • Unlike natural disasters, where any disruption to business service provision is likely to be hardware-related, disruption to business operation in the event of a pandemic is anticipated to be mainly human-resource oriented. Individual employers must consider their workforces and their particular circumstances. However, most should plan for up to 50% staff absences for periods of about two weeks at the height of a severe pandemic wave, and lower levels of staff absence for a few weeks either side of the peak. Overall, a pandemic wave may last about 8 weeks.

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  • To our knowledge, the only study on Breslow index determination using DRS was carried out on phantoms as a preliminary study prior to a clinical trial. Two-layer phantoms mimicking dermis (6.3 mm thick) for the bottom layer and melanoma (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mm) for the upper layer were made of gelatine as a solid 3D-matrix, intralipids for the scattering properties and coffee for the absorbing properties of melanoma.

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  • If you have been divorced, your former wife or husband who is age 60 or older (50-59 if disabled) can get benefits if your marriage lasted at least 10 years. Your former spouse, however, does not have to meet the age or length- of-marriage rule if he or she is caring for his/her child who is younger than age 16 or who is disabled and also entitled based on your work. The child must be your former spouse’s natural or legally adopted child. Benefits paid to you as a surviving divorced spouse who meets the age or disability requirement as a widow...

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  • Recent introduction of PSA into the health check up program in Japan resulted in a marked increase of patients with early stage prostate cancer. These patients were treated until now by open or laparoscopic prostatectomy, irradiation therapy including external beam irradiation and brachytherapy, hormonal therapy, watchful waiting and high intensity focused ultrasound.

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  • Looking only at the availability of elevators may not fully illustrate the accessibility of a unit. A unit located on the tenth floor of a multi-story building without a working elevator is less accessible than a unit located on the third floor of the same building. We, therefore, extended the analysis by controlling for the number of floors from the main entrance to the apartment. Data, presented in parentheses, indicate that the majority of people live in multi-family buildings with no more than five stories.

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  • Abnormal profits (or the lack thereof) for mutual funds in the stock market have been studied extensively in the literature (see e.g. Jensen (1968, 1969), Brown and Goetzmann (1995), Gruber (1996), Carhart (1997)). The common theme that emerges from these studies is that true riskadjusted abnormal profits are rare in stock portfolios held by mutual funds, and when found, such profits lack persistence.

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  • The participants generally preferred to use and recommend materials that are in the public domain and not subject to copyright, and most of the organizations they represent want their information to reach the public unhindered. Materials produced by or funded by the Federal and most state and local government generally can’t be copyrighted and are in the public domain. Increasingly, such materials are posted on the Internet. In addition, a participant stated that if an agency is producing something with outside support, they should be required to make it freely available.

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  • In many ways, local authorities are well placed to pursue measures which improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For example, policies designed to reduce the impact that transport has on air quality by tackling congestion and encouraging a shift to public transport, walking and cycling should also reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Measures to improve energy efficiency and cut energy demand should also reduce air pollutants that are produced during electricity generation.

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  • The 2009 OECD Working Paper „Pension Fund Investment in Infrastructure‟ (Inderst 2009) discusses barriers to pension funds‟ investment in infrastructure projects in general – which can be seen to apply also to green investments.

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  • Long-term Equity Anticipation Securities® (LEAPS®) / long-term stock options provide the owner the right to purchase or sell shares of a stock at a specified price on or before a given date up to three years in the future. As with other options, LEAPS® are available in two types, calls and puts. Like other exchange-traded stock options, LEAPS® are American-style options. LEAPS® calls provide an opportunity to benefit from a stock price increase without making an outright stock purchase for those investors with a longer term view of the stock market.

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  • In research portraying community life, the multiplicity of viewpoints present within Aboriginal communities should be represented fairly, including viewpoints specific to age and gender groups. Researchers have an obligation to understand and observe the protocols concerning communications within any Aboriginal community. Researchers have an obligation to observe ethical and professional practices relevant to their respective disciplines. Researchers have an obligation to observe and respect a holistic philosophy in practice.

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  • Support groups also can help. In these groups, patients or their family members meet with other patients or their families to share what they have learned about coping with the disease and the effects of treatment. Groups may offer support in person, over the telephone, or on the Internet. You may want to talk with a member of your health care team about finding a support group. It is natural for you to be worried about the effects of ovarian cancer and its treatment on your sexuality.

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  • Twelve studies addressed the contextual influences which hinder or enable the develop- ment of reflection and reflective capability. Several studies explored the effect of context on reflection and reflective thinking. Sobral (2000) found evidence for improved quality of learning as students strive for control of their learning. He suggests that a greater effort at reflection is associated with a more positive learning experience, and that reflection in learning is related to readiness for self- regulated learning, and to the meaningfulness of the experience. Boenink et al.

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  • The Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group (MMEIG), together with Professor John Wilmoth and Alison Gemmill, of the University of California at Berkeley, United States of America (USA), collaborated in developing these maternal mortality estimates.

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  • The results of this review expand our understanding of the relationship between health literacy and health outcomes in several ways. First, a majority of studies included in this review performed multivariate analysis, allowing us to make better estimates of the true effect of health literacy on health outcomes. Second, new studies have addressed the relationship between numeracy level and health outcomes. This allows a better understanding of what it means to be health literate.

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