In many countries, problems associated with an absence of clear responsibilities, with
the overlapping of institutional boundaries, duplication of work and a lack of co-
ordination between involved institutions, are common obstacles to effective water
pollution control (see Case Studies V, III, XIII, X and IV for South Africa, Philippines,
Yemen, Russia and Nigeria).
The analysis must include all relevant administrative levels, for example through
intensive studies at the central level combined with visits and studies in selected regions
at lower administrative levels.