Violate international

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  • This book examines recent developments in sources of public international law, such as treaties and custom operating among nations in their mutual relations, as well as developments in some of the primary rule of law international institutions created by these processes.

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  • Within a few months after al Qaeda’s unlawful terroristic attacks inside the United States on September 11, 2001, the Bush administration embarked on a “dirty war” response to terrorism involving methods of detention, treatment, and interrogation that Vice President Cheney had generalized as responses on “the dark side.

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  • There is an old schoolyard saying: “Sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never harm me.” If all the talk about human rights violations seems sometimes to have little measurable effect, is it in the area of punitive trade mea- sures that violating States are more likely to say “ouch!” and be dissuaded from continuing along the path of either active violations of human rights or passive toleration of them in their countries? A good case can be made for trade sanctions as an instrument for bringing about a greater observance of human rights. But, as in so...

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  • This book examines the coherent international tax regime that is embodied both in the tax treaty network and in domestic laws, and the way it forms a significant part of international law, both treaty-based and customary. The practical implication is that countries are not free to adopt any international tax rules they please, but rather operate in the context of the regime, which changes in the same ways international law changes over time.

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  • This book began many years ago as an inquiry into the legal issues sur- rounding humanitarian intervention—which I define as the use of military force to protect the victims of human rights violations. As I delved into the matter, however, I found that the legal problems of humanitarian interven- tion were inextricably intertwined with important ethical issues, including whether or not all countries and their citizens have a duty to come to the rescue of those whose lives are imperiled by the malicious behavior of their own governments or by armed factions.

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  • You who know something of the irony of life in general, and still more of it in the present particular, will not be surprised that, having made two strict rules for my guidance in the writing of this book, I break them both in the first page! Indeed, I can hear you say, though without any touch of the satirical, that it was only natural that I should do so. The first of my two rules, heartily approved by you, let me add, is that I should not mention you in my autobiography.--We both deem it foolish as well as unseemly to violate in print...

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  • Assume, for a moment, that the necessary tools are available to induce or even force states to comply with international law. In such a state of affairs, how strongly should international law be protected? More specifically, how easy should it be to change international law? Should treaties be specifically performed or should states be given an opportunity to “pay their way out”? In the event of states violating their commitments, what kind of back-up enforcement or sanctions should be imposed?...

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  • The Water Quality Act of 1965 (WQA) was the first major statutory attempt to address the nation’s growing water quality problems. The Act proved to be a weak basis for enforcement authority, but did yield one major improvement: the development of ambient water quality standards. States were called upon to set their own standards and given flexibility to determine how standards would be met. The Act’s major weakness was that it gave no concrete authority to force effluent reductions by specific polluters.

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  • !“e International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) is a profoundly important institution in the development of international humanitarian law and criminal law in general. Its arrival heralded a newfound willingness of the international community to bring to book perpetrators of war crimes and gross or systematic violations of human rights.

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  • The level of surface water quality protection is variable around the world in large part due to the relative effectiveness of environmental regulation and the degree to which science influences the regulatory process. In the United States, at the federal level, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) has been an effective policy and water quality management tool for dealing with both point source and non-point source pollution.

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  • In the summer of 1772, Massachusetts Governor Thomas Hutchinson announced that he and all superior court judges would no longer need or accept the payment of their salaries from the Massachusetts legislature because the Crown would henceforth assume payment drawn from customs revenues. The following December, spurred on by Boston radicals, the town of Cambridge condemned the attempt to make the judges’ salaries payable by the royal exchequer as a violation of their ancient liberties and practices.

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  • This FY 2013 budget builds upon current efforts to transition toward using 21 Century technology in enforcement and compliance, resulting in long-term savings to the federal government, states, and the regulated community as the overall cost of compliance is reduced. Investments in new technology, including e-reporting and more advanced monitoring tools, will allow the EPA and our state partners to more easily identify, investigate, and address the worst violations that affect our communities.

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  • Trends of globalisation, the integration of markets and the rise of the Internet economy have made that violations of intellectual property rights (IPRs), such as counterfeiting or Internet piracy, have become more widespread. While there is no shortage of estimates of the scale and impacts of these infringements, there is little consensus on their accuracy or reliability. In absence of a robust evidence base, it is difficult to debate the effectiveness of government efforts to regulate IPRs or address the impacts of infringements....

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  • The first law of thermodynamics gives the quantiative relations between the internal energy of a system and the quantities of heat and work that the system exchange with surroundings. It express the conservation of energy. The first law of thermodynamics is true, but not enough ! Why ? Many thermodynamic processes which don’t violate the 1st law, but don’t happen in nature !

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  • As a scientist who has worked for more than 40 years to find cures for infectious disease, I find the idea that terrorists would use biological agents as a weapon to be anathema. It violates the fundamental values of the life sciences that I and my colleagues hold dear: that science is a vital tool for improving life and the health of our planet and enhancing our understanding of the natural world. My own work has focused on cholera, a disease responsible for the death of thousands of people around the world every year.

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  • The Spheres of the 1960s were all characterized by an imagery of pure form sundered, violated, and partially eaten away by internal erosion. Beneath the flawlessly polished or natural skins of the exterior surfaces, multiple motifs of recessed and repeated dentils, ribs, and hatching became for the artist “an expression of an interior movement.” While an artist in residence at Stanford University, Pomodoro evolved the first of his new spheres, the Rotani or Rotors, of which the Putnam Memorial Collection has one of the earliest examples.

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  • We are issuing 14 recommendations to NOP officials to improve program administration and internal controls. We recommend that NOP strengthen its enforcement procedures to determine what actions should be imposed on program violators, including civil penalties, and to timely issue the appropriate actions. We also recommend that officials timely resolve and track complaints from receipt through disposition.

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  • Without proper protection, any part of any network can be susceptible to attacks or unauthorized activity. Routers, switches, and hosts can all be violated by professional hackers, company competitors, or even internal employees. In fact, according to several studies, more than half of all network attacks are waged internally. The Computer Security Institute (CSI) in San Francisco estimates that between 60 and 80 percent of network misuse comes from inside the enterprises where the misuse has taken place.

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  • In addition to the steps that an organization must take internally, nations and states face the need for providing privacy protection mechanisms to assure compliance with the safe harbor principles. There must also be recourse for individuals affected by noncompliance with the principles, and there must be consequences for an organization that violates safe harbor principles.

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  • Overall, current regulation in emerging economies largely fails to adequately protect foreign contract workers. As a result, migrant workers have become akin to other sourced commodities, with a premium on price over rights and protections. Systemic change is required to create the conditions under which labor migrants can safely move from one emerging country to another, contrib- uting to the economic growth of both their origin and destination countries as well as their own personal livelihoods.

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