Oncogenic viruses are the known etiologic agents in 15% – 20% of all human cancers.
Their impact on global health is signifi cant. The fi rst recognition that cancer can be
caused by a virus dates back to observations of Rous sarcoma virus in chickens almost
100 years ago. However, it was not until the 1970s that the mechanistic basis for
retroviral transformation became clearer. That era was marked by the discovery of
many viral oncogenes and counterpart cellular proto - oncogenes.
This comprehensive volume covers the major viral, bacterial and fungal diseases in fi n- and
shellfi shes. It completes the three-volume series on fi sh diseases and disorders; Volume I
(published in 1995) is on parasitic diseases in fi n- and shellfi shes while Volume II (published
in 1998) deals with non-infectious disorders in fi nfi sh. Reviews in the three volumes
are written by international authorities that are actively working in the area or have contributed
greatly to our understanding of specifi c piscine diseases or disorders.
We planned the first edition of this book on a ‘need to know’
basis, its primary object being to provide students and medical
and dental practitioners with the knowledge essential for an
informed approach to the prevention and treatment of viral
infections. We aimed also at supplying just enough basic virology
to underpin the more practical aspects—clinical manifestations,
epidemiology, pathogenesis, immune responses, and so
forth. And not least, we tried our best to make the text as readable
as is possible, given the highly technical nature of some of
Oncogenes in Human Cancer Oncogenes of the kind found in human cancers were initially discovered through their presence in the genome of retroviruses capable of causing cancers in chickens, mice, and rats. The cellular homologues of these viral genes are often targets of mutation or aberrant regulation in human cancer. Whereas many oncogenes were discovered because of their presence in retroviruses, other oncogenes, particularly those involved in translocations characteristic of particular leukemias and lymphomas, were isolated through genomic approaches.
Carcinogenesis covers molecular, biochemical and cellular processes that underpin this field. The complex nature of cancer means that a broad understanding of these processes is advantageous when designing novel preventative, therapeutic or diagnostic strategies. This book commences with chapters discussing cancer predisposition and pre-cancerous lesions. Factors that initiate or progress cancer development, including viral, hormonal, oncogenic and biochemical stimuli are then described, as are interactions with the cancer extracellular environment....
Even though human oncogenic viruses belong to different
virus families and utilize diverse strategies to contribute to
cancer development, they share many common features. One
key feature is their ability to infect, but not kill, their host cell. In
contrast to many other viruses that cause disease, oncogenic
viruses have the tendency to establish long-term persistent in-
fections. Consequently, they have evolved strategies for evading
the host immune response, which would otherwise clear the
virus during these persistent infections.