Xem 1-8 trên 8 kết quả Vitro screening
  • The Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture recognises that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and challenges. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the producers and local economy while the potential challenges are the flow-on costs to the environment, animal health and welfare.

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  • Early interest in selenium by nutritionists concerned its high concentration in certain range plants and the consequent toxicosis in animals that grazed those plants. More recently, the essential nature of selenium has become the center of attention, and this element is now known to be required by laboratory animals, food animals (including fish), and humans. Its role as an integral feature of glutathione peroxidase has been established, and other possible functions are under active investigation.

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  • Viruses are obligate parasites which depend on living cells to multiply. Their ability to deliver stable RNA and DNA into cells has determined their use in gene therapy. In 1983 Mann et al. developed one of the first retroviral gene therapy vectors for delivery in vitro (Mann, Mulligan et al. 1983). This development was followed by many successfully gene therapy trials of retroviruses (Anderson, Blaese et al. 1990; Levine and Friedmann 1991; Blaese, Culver et al. 1993). Now, retrovirual vectors are implemented in nearly 22.2% of clinical trials (http://www.wiley.

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  • Methylanthraniloyl derivatives of ATP and CDP were usedin vitro as fluorescent probes for the donor-binding and acceptor-binding sites of human UMP-CMP kinase, a nucleoside salvage pathway kinase. Like all NMP kinases, UMP-CMP kinase binds the phosphodonor, usually ATP, and the NMP at different binding sites.

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  • The (ba)8-barrel is the most common enzyme fold and it is capable of cata-lyzing an enormous diversity of reactions. It follows that this scaffold should be an ideal starting point for engineering novel enzymes by directed evolution. However, experiments to date have utilized in vivo screens or selections and the compatibility of (ba)8-barrels with in vitro selection methods remains largely untested.

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  • Great efficiencies have been achieved in the drug discovery process as a result of technological advances in target identification, high-throughput screening, high-throughput organic synthesis, just-in-time in vitro ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and early pharmacokinetic screening of drug leads. These advances, spanning target selection all the way through to clinical candidate selection, have placed greater and greater demands on the analytical community to develop robust high-throughput methods.

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  • In 1990, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was introduced as an experimental procedure to genetically screen human embryos during an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle (1,2). More than a decade later, PGD has become an established clinical procedure in assisted reproductive technologies with over 6500 PGD cycles performed worldwide, resulting in the birth of well over 1000 healthy babies and a pregnancy rate per transfer of approximately 24% (3).

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  • The new antigen receptor (IgNAR) from sharks is a disul-phide bonded dimer of two protein chains,each containing one variable and five constant domains,and functions as an antibody. In order to assess the antigen-binding capabilities of isolated IgNAR variable domains (VNAR),we have con-structed anin vitro library incorporating synthetic CDR3 regions of 15–18 residues in length.

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