The Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of
Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture recognises that the trend towards
intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities
and challenges. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the
producers and local economy while the potential challenges are the flow-on costs
to the environment, animal health and welfare.
Early interest in selenium by nutritionists concerned its high concentration in
certain range plants and the consequent toxicosis in animals that grazed those plants.
More recently, the essential nature of selenium has become the center of attention, and
this element is now known to be required by laboratory animals, food animals (including
fish), and humans. Its role as an integral feature of glutathione peroxidase has been
established, and other possible functions are under active investigation.
Viruses are obligate parasites which depend on living cells to multiply. Their ability to
deliver stable RNA and DNA into cells has determined their use in gene therapy. In 1983
Mann et al. developed one of the first retroviral gene therapy vectors for delivery in vitro
(Mann, Mulligan et al. 1983). This development was followed by many successfully gene
therapy trials of retroviruses (Anderson, Blaese et al. 1990; Levine and Friedmann 1991;
Blaese, Culver et al. 1993). Now, retrovirual vectors are implemented in nearly 22.2% of
clinical trials (http://www.wiley.
Methylanthraniloyl derivatives of ATP and CDP were usedin vitro as
fluorescent probes for the donor-binding and acceptor-binding sites of
human UMP-CMP kinase, a nucleoside salvage pathway kinase. Like all
NMP kinases, UMP-CMP kinase binds the phosphodonor, usually ATP,
and the NMP at different binding sites.
The (ba)8-barrel is the most common enzyme fold and it is capable of cata-lyzing an enormous diversity of reactions. It follows that this scaffold
should be an ideal starting point for engineering novel enzymes by directed
evolution. However, experiments to date have utilized in vivo screens or
selections and the compatibility of (ba)8-barrels with in vitro selection
methods remains largely untested.
Great efﬁciencies have been achieved in the drug discovery process as a result of technological advances in target identiﬁcation, high-throughput screening, high-throughput organic synthesis, just-in-time in vitro ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and early pharmacokinetic screening of drug leads. These advances, spanning target selection all the way through to clinical candidate selection, have placed greater and greater demands on the analytical community to develop robust high-throughput methods.
In 1990, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was introduced as an experimental procedure to genetically screen human embryos during an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle (1,2). More than a decade later, PGD has become an established clinical procedure in assisted reproductive technologies with over 6500 PGD cycles performed worldwide, resulting in the birth of well over 1000 healthy babies and a pregnancy rate per transfer of approximately 24% (3).
The new antigen receptor (IgNAR) from sharks is a disul-phide bonded dimer of two protein chains,each containing
one variable and five constant domains,and functions as an
antibody. In order to assess the antigen-binding capabilities
of isolated IgNAR variable domains (VNAR),we have con-structed anin vitro library incorporating synthetic CDR3
regions of 15–18 residues in length.