Xem 1-20 trên 45 kết quả Volatile oils
  • Essential oils (also called volatile oils) generally extracted by distillation from plants are hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds. The essential oils are widely used in perfumes, cosmetics as well as in food and drink as flavor additives. Some essential oils show multiple pharmacological activities and have been considered as the major active fractions of herbal medicines [1–3].

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  • The health-promoting effects attributed to olive oil, and the development of the olive oil industry have intensified the quest for new information, stimulating wide areas of research. This book is a source of recently accumulated information. It covers a broad range of topics from chemistry, technology, and quality assessment, to bioavailability and function of important molecules, recovery of bioactive compounds, preparation of olive oil-based functional products, and identification of novel pharmacological targets for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases....

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  • By 1980, fuel ethanol production had increased from a few million gallons in the 1970s to 175 million gallons per year. During the 1990s, production increased to 1.47 billion gallons, and total production for 2006 is expected to be about 5.0 billion gallons. Annual U.S. plant capacity is now over 4.5 billion gallons, most of it currently in use. Demand is rising partly because a number of States have banned (or soon will ban) methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethanol is taking over MTBE’s role (Dien et al., April 2002). Ethanol provides a clean octane replacement for MTBE.

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  • The store of value function is redundant in a time-0 auction and any durable asset dominates money in sequential trading versions of the auction. Strictly speaking the unit of account function is also not required but obviously selecting a numeraire would reduce the computations required even for the time-0 auction. The point is simply that given the computing power underlying the auction the unit of account function is not a necessary feature of the economy. Any commodity can act as the unit of account even one with no physical existence, but jam is as good a numeraire as any –the...

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  • The perennial crop sector in Southeast Asia illustrates the plantation model of large-scale farming. Malaysia and Indonesia produce nearly 90 percent of the world’s palm oil, production of which has expanded rapidly in response to growing global demand for edible oils and strong government support. In Indonesia, planted area more than doubled from about 2.9 million ha in 1997 to 6.3 million ha in 2007. In contrast to annual crops, oil palm is highly labor intensive and the industry is estimated to have created an estimated 1.7 to 3 million jobs.

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  • In the last decade, scientists began to use signaling molecules such as growth factors in their quest to restore destroyed tooth support (Anusaksathien & Giannobile, 2002) and this reason request a very good knowledge of the biological actions of growth factors, both summative and redundant, in the specific “milieu” of periodontal diseases.

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  • In the case of Writing and Speaking, however, the small increases in the mean scores did not reflect a significant improvement. For Writing, the sample mean of 6.33 (SD = .64) was not significantly different from 6.21, t(39) = -0.95, p .05. Likewise, for Speaking, the sample mean of 6.66 (SD = .78) was not significantly different from 6.50, t(39) = -1.25, p .05. The results of the paired sample t-test conducted on the Overall score did, however, indicate an improvement. The sample mean of 7.01 (SD = .49) was significantly different from 6.71, t(39) = -3.86, p...

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  • Through the studies, we can deduce that most of the industrial discharge carries toxic substances. Due to the presence of high amount of toxic, carcinogen, and teratogen of metals, researchers are highly concerned with its effect on the environment and health of mankind. Rigorous investigations are currently being carried out to study the consequences of the contamination on the surface water, groundwater, and surface land due to industrial discharge.

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  • The heat radiation from gas flaring greatly affects the surrounding environment and particular crops planted within the vicinity of gas flare stations (Abdulkareem and Odigure, 2002). It also has a devastating effect on microorganisms and aquatic life. Heat radiation from gas flaring also causes an increase in heat waves hence there is the possibility that habitants of Niger-Delta Area, where the gas flaring stations are located will suffer heart stroke, heart attacks and other ailments aggravated by the heat (Odigure et al., 2003).

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  • This book contains four parts with 16 chapters. Firstly, an optimal stimulation scheme  for  ovaries,  particularly  natural  and  minimal  stimulation  of  ovaries,  has  been  discussed  in  the  first  part.  Then,  one  paper  analyzed  that  how  many  oocytes  per  retrieval will be  the best  for human IVF practice. If one stimulation scheme produces  too  many  eggs,  it  often  results  in  hyperstimulation  syndrome.

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  • In a third step, the firm now uses the money to hire some formerly unemployed worker from the household sector in order to produce some capital good (i.e. build a factory building). Hiring the worker and paying him 100 pesos by bank transfer means a transfer of the deposit from the firm’s account to the household’s account in the bank. 12 At the same time, the firm gets the capital good newly produced while the household’s net wealth increases by the amount of wages paid (accounting record 3).

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  • Trigeneration. The combination of gas engines with absorption chillers is an optimal solution for generating air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The waste heat from the mixture intercooler, the engin oil, the engine cooling water, and the exhaust gas serves as drive energy for the chillers. Combining a cogeneration plant unit with an absorption refrigeration system allows utilization of seasonal excess heat for cooling.

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  • Many of these failures can be caused by manufacturing defects and / or design procedure is inconsistent with a particular emphasis on areas disrupted the vessels. Sound emission data were collected on the actual ship and trends in the data were analyzed, resulting in a load standard and appraisal procedures (CARP, 1982). The concept was later developed into the ASME boiler and pressure vessel Code and is used today (ASME 2010a and 2010b). AE is still the preferred method assessment of a ship before, and also to evaluate the train services....

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  • The Government has published high level Public Service Agreements (PSAs). These are its priorities and strategic objectives with measurable targets – the vast majority of these measure outcomes. The Government has also published Service Delivery Agreements (SDAs) for every government department. SDAs explain how the Government aims to deliver the high level targets in the PSAs, and how it will modernise and reform to get better value for money. The SDAs include measures of outputs, processes and inputs which deliver the outcomes which the Government is aiming for.

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  • There are three things to be said in response to this concern. First, even if it is sometimes true that sensing and adjusting is done automatically or unconsciously, it is not always the case. When, after a long bout of reading, I straighten my frame and enjoy a delicious sensation of stretching, this may be very consciously appreciated and adjusted so as to work out subtle areas of tension that have built up. The reciprocal relation of doing and undergoing is quite conscious: ‘the action and its consequence’ are ‘joined in perception’ . ...

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  • The past two hundred years have witnessed two exploding trends: rapid population growth following the decline in mortality due to both the medical revolution and the improvement in living conditions and a steep increase of resource depletion and environmental degradation following the industrial and agricultural revolutions. Both of these trends have accelerated over the past 50 years, fueling the debate on the linkages between population and environment that began 150 years earlier with Malthus’ concern about the capacity of fixed land to feed an exponentially growing population....

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  • The most commonly listed Characterizations of Suspicious Activity (in whole or in part) were BSA/Money Laundering/Structuring and Other – the aggregated totals of which accounted for 85 percent of all reported suspected illicit activity.

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  • The third approach, modern capital budgeting, recognises that today’s (present) value of an investment asset is the cash flow it can generate in the future, not the returns it has provided in the past. Accordingly, investment appraisal must adopt an ‘ex ante’ - forward- looking analysis - as distinct from the backward-looking focus of the traditional financial approaches typified by the ROI calculation.

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  • They have also become important international investors and trade partners, and play a crucial role in world energy markets. Indeed, GCC countries are major exporters of oil in global energy markets, so their stock markets may be susceptible to changes in oil prices. However, the transmission mechanisms of oil price shocks to stock returns in GCC markets should be different from those in net oil-importing countries.

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  • There are opportunities to develop wider access for students and to consider the contribution that information technology can make to effective and flexible education delivery through the innovative use of a variety of teaching methods. The role of lecturers is likely to change and they will need support to develop the skills and expertise to work with new and advancing technology such as the appropriate use of social networking and the use of innovative communications.

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