Volcanic eruptions

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  • Volcanic Eruptions and Hazards: What is a volcano? A volcano is a vent or  'chimney' that connects molten  rock (magma) from within the  Earth’s crust to the Earth's  surface.  The volcano includes the surrounding cone of erupted material.

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  • Volcanic eruptions are awesome and destructive; however, this natural phenomenon is beneficial in the long term. One of the earliest known written records of a natural disaster concerned the eruption of Pompeii in A.D. 79, and was recorded by Pliny the Younger in his letters to the historian Tacitus (Jashemski, 1979). Volcanic eruptions, ranging in intensity and numbering between 17 and 27 per year during the past decade (Bullard, 1984), continue to remind us of their potential impacts on the environment.

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  • Volcanic eruptions are among the Earth's most powerful and destructive forces. Imagine hearing a volcano erupt thousands of miles away. Imagine looking through binoculars and seeing the top of a mountain collapse. Imagine discovering an ancient Roman city that had been buried in volcanic ash. Volcanoes are also creative forces. The Earth's first oceans and atmosphere formed from the gases given off by volcanoes. In turn, oceans and an atmosphere created the environment that made life possible on our planet. Volcanoes have also shaped the Earth's landscape.

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  • The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Earth Science provides a compendium of more than 10,000 terms that are central to the broad range of disciplines comprising earth science. The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on the areas of climatology, geochemistry, geodesy, geography, geology, geophysics, hydrol- ogy, meteorology, and oceanography, with new terms added and others revised as necessary.

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  • I t is a great honour and joy for me to present this volume of Scripta Varia which contains the papers presented during the Study Week on “Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and their Impact on the Environment” held at the seat of the Academy from the 7th to the 11th of November, 1983. The discussions which followed each presentation are included in the volume. These proceedings are of great interest; they touch on problems which may seem diverse for a non-knowledgeable person, or insignificant to those who flee the reality of our present world.

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  • Natural disasters destroy more property and kill more people with each passing year. Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, floods, landslides, fires and other natural events are becoming more frequent and their consequences more devastating. Del Moral and Walker provide a comprehensive summary of the diverse ways in which natural disasters disrupt humanity and how humans cope. Burgeoning human numbers, shrinking resources and intensification of the consequences of natural disasters have produced a crisis of unparalleled proportions.

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  • Sudden shifting of the ocean floor due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and submarine slumping. open ocean: short heights, long wavelengths (100 km), and long periods 400500 mph!!! shallow water: their length shortens and their height increases dramatically. These are NOT tidal waves

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học được đăng trên tạp chí toán học quấc tế đề tài: Short- and long-term evacuation of people and livestock during a volcanic crisis: lessons from the 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson, Chile

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  • Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions—and the devastation they inflict—are all too familiar to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. In the last decade, natural disasters have caused more than 45,000 deaths in the region, left 40 million injured or in need of assistance, and carried a price tag—in direct damage alone—of more than US$20 billion.1 The health sector has proven particularly vulnerable to such havoc.

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  • Sudden shifting of the ocean floor due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and submarine slumping.open ocean: short heights, long wavelengths (100 km), and long periods 400-500 mph!!! shallow water: their length shortens and their height increases dramatically...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Short- and long-term evacuation of people and livestock during a volcanic crisis: lessons from the 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson, Chile

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  • Mercury that exists in a stable state in the Earth’s crust is referred to as “geologic” mercury. The active mercury cycle begins when mercury is released from this stable form to the environment through natural processes or human intervention. There are four principal pathways releasing mercury to the environment. First is through natural processes; for example, mercury that was once in the Earth’s crust could be released through a volcanic eruption or other geological activity.

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  • Many of the Earth’s elements travel or cycle through the natural environment. This means that they are transported from the soil into nearby lakes and rivers, and then evaporate from the water into the air, to be transported by wind and eventually re-deposited to the surface where the cycle starts over again. Mercury cycles through the environment in this way (see Figure 5). An atom of mercury may begin its journey by being eroded from rocks on the shore of a lake or by being vented into the atmosphere as mercury vapour from a volcanic eruption. These are natural emissions.

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  • Natural disasters—including hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods— caused over 220,000 deaths worldwide in the first half of 2010 and wreaked havoc on homes, buildings, and the environment. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential that citizens and communities work together to anticipate threats, limit their effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisi

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  • Diamond crystals form deep within the mantle of the earth when carbon is exposed to extreme pressure and very high temperatures. Volcanic rock formations such as kimberlite or lamproite pipes serve as pathways that convey the fragments of rocks and crystals from the mantle to the surface (see.Figure.1). The diamonds, along with vast quantities of magma, are blasted upward in the course of violent eruptions. Kimberlite pipes, the richest source of mined diamonds, are usually shaped like a carrot and can extend as deep as 1 to 2 kilometers underground.

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  • This book contains papers presented at a symposium held May 21-25, 1991, at Hans Beda, Bitburg, Germany. At the meeting 60 specialists from 8 countries discussed various aspects of palaeolimnology of European maar lakes. Of the more than 50 presentations given at the Bitburg symposium, 31 are published here. Four additional contributions have been excepted.

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  • When Mount Vesuvius erupted in the year 79, Herculaneum and all but the highest points of Pompeii were completely buried under tons of ash and other volcanic matter. In the aftermath of the eruption, Greek historian and biographer Plutarch wrote: “Those who went there by daylight felt ignorance and uncertainty as to where Pompeii and Herculaneum had been situated.

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  • Indeed, most climate scientists now suspect that the accumulation of these gases in the lower atmosphere has contributed to the strong recent uptrend in world average temperature. In its Third Assessment Report, published in 2001, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated: “There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities” (3). During the twentieth century, world average surface temperature increased by approximately 0.6°C (Figure 1.1).

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