Volcanic process

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  • Volcanic Eruptions and Hazards: What is a volcano? A volcano is a vent or  'chimney' that connects molten  rock (magma) from within the  Earth’s crust to the Earth's  surface.  The volcano includes the surrounding cone of erupted material.

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  • Volcanic eruptions are awesome and destructive; however, this natural phenomenon is beneficial in the long term. One of the earliest known written records of a natural disaster concerned the eruption of Pompeii in A.D. 79, and was recorded by Pliny the Younger in his letters to the historian Tacitus (Jashemski, 1979). Volcanic eruptions, ranging in intensity and numbering between 17 and 27 per year during the past decade (Bullard, 1984), continue to remind us of their potential impacts on the environment.

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  • The search for oil occurs in geological sediments, as opposed to volcanic rocks. Several processes are involved in the creation of sediments. First, the inland continental volcanic rock is continuously being weakened and eroded by weathering processes (mechanical (through water, ice and wind) and chemical erosion). Secondly and simultaneously, the eroded material is being transported by water, ice and wind and gradually the material may be broken down into smaller pieces (from boulders to gravel, to sand, to silt and finally to clay).

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  • Volcanism witnesses every major change of our planet and other planets. In Advances in Volcanology, scientists from highly active volcanic countries, such as Japan, Italy, and New Zealand, as well as others from Germany, Portugal, and Russia, debate less commonplace themes. Topics from classic field volcanology, including practical problems with volcanic stratigraphy in oil exploitation, to the most modern techniques related to tomographic studies are discussed.

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  • I t is a great honour and joy for me to present this volume of Scripta Varia which contains the papers presented during the Study Week on “Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and their Impact on the Environment” held at the seat of the Academy from the 7th to the 11th of November, 1983. The discussions which followed each presentation are included in the volume. These proceedings are of great interest; they touch on problems which may seem diverse for a non-knowledgeable person, or insignificant to those who flee the reality of our present world.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'updates in volcanology – a comprehensive approach to volcanological problems_2', tài liệu phổ thông phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Subduction is a major process that plays a first-order role in the dynamics of the Earth. The sinking of cold lithosphere into the mantle is thought by many authors to be the most important source of energy for plates driving forces. It also deeply modifies the thermal and chemical structure of the mantle, producing arc volcanism and is responsible for the release of most of the seismic energy on Earth. There has been considerable achievements done during the past decades regarding the complex interactions between the various processes acting in subduction zones.

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  • Mercury that exists in a stable state in the Earth’s crust is referred to as “geologic” mercury. The active mercury cycle begins when mercury is released from this stable form to the environment through natural processes or human intervention. There are four principal pathways releasing mercury to the environment. First is through natural processes; for example, mercury that was once in the Earth’s crust could be released through a volcanic eruption or other geological activity.

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