Oropharyngeal motor dysphagia results from impairment of the voluntary effort required in bolus preparation or neuromuscular disorders affecting bolus preparation, initiation of the swallowing reflex, timely passage of food through the pharynx, and prevention of entry of food into the nasal and the laryngeal opening. Paralysis of the suprahyoid muscles leads to loss of opening of the UES and severe dysphagia. Because each side of the pharynx is innervated by ipsilateral nerves, a unilateral lesion of motor neurons leads to unilateral pharyngeal paralysis.
The brain and spinal cord compose the Central Nervous System (CNS), which is the control center
of the body. Inputs from muscles, involuntary organs, and senses travel through the nerves of the
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) into the CNS where they are interpreted. Signals may travel
within the brain to separate functional areas. Instructions are then sent outward again for voluntary
movement and involuntary regulation to complete the endless loop of the nervous system circuitry.
(BQ) Ebook Like science: Body Systems helps you know what are the different types of tissue found in the body? Name the parts of a neuron, and tell what each part does; what is the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles? Your digestive system breaks down the food you eat so your cells can use it. Write to explain the different ways your body digests food.