The relationship between air pollution and premature mortality is most often studied
using time-series analysis of daily observations of the number of deaths and pollution levels.
These studies capture the effects of short-term exposure to pollution on the probability of dying.
The underlying assumption is that there is a distribution of susceptibility to the effects of air
pollution in any population. People who are in a weakened physical state or who have a history
of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cardio-pulmonary problems are thought to
be the most vulnerable.
Tham khảo sách 'the secure online business handbook e commerce, it functionality & business continuitythird', kinh doanh - tiếp thị, quản trị kinh doanh phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
The belief that children will take care of the parents in the old age is eroding in India where
the family size has been cut down as a result of the demographic process (Dandelkar, 1996).
The situation in the urban areas shows a rejection of older people by the next generation and
this is spreading to rural areas (Desai, 1985). In the nuclear family regime, the position of the
aged becomes more vulnerable and is treated as a burden to the family (Nayar, 1992). The
social negligence of the aged occurs due to cultural, social and economic relations within the...
For many organizations their dependence on information systems, both within the company
and networked up and down their supply chain, is now business critical. Any sustained loss
of availability of these systems would threaten the very existence of the business.
Security is a holistic issue. Vulnerabilities in physical, personnel and electronic
security all need to be addressed with equal commitment. Too many businesses still focus
on physical security without sustaining even basic precautions in personnel and electronic
As part of its mandate, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) monitors market developments
and advises on their implications for regulatory policy1
. In doing so, it seeks to identify
potential vulnerabilities and the actions that may be needed to address them. The recent rapid
growth and innovation in the market for Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) is a development
that the FSB believes warrants increased attention by regulatory and supervisory authorities,
as well as by the ETF industry, including providers, market-makers and investors.
Physical aspects origins, science, and processes of continental shelf environments, microbes and plants the beginning and end of continental shelf food chains, sponges, cnidarians, and worms simple and successful animals on the continental shelf,... is the main content of the book "Life in the sea the continental shelf".
There has been much discussion in recent months concerning who might be included in the population of “vulnerable” residents. The term “vulnerable” has most often been used interchangeably with the term “special needs.” In the most broad sense as related to disaster management, the vulnerable population refers to those individuals who do not feel they can adequately access the resources they need during all four phases of a disaster: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation.
Recent disasters in the United States, especially Hurricane Katrina, have proven the inadequacy of planning for the protection and safety of our vulnerable populations. The vulnerable, or special, populations can be categorized in many ways, including those with physical disabilities, who have cognitive impairment or mental illness, who are incarcerated, who speak English as a second language or not at all, and who are elderly.
Any physical storage medium is, by definition, completely dependent upon very specific
combinations of hardware and software for access. The accessibility of information stored
on such media is highly vulnerable in today’s rapidly evolving technological environment.
This issue is not solely the concern of digital archivists, but of all those responsible for
managing and sustaining access to electronic records over even relatively short
Other areas, such as infec-
tious disease and aging research, illustrate the dramatic recent progress made
possible by evolutionary insights. In still other areas, such as epidemiology,
psychiatry, and understanding the regulation of bodily defenses, applying evo-
lutionary principles remains an open opportunity. In addition to the utility of
speciﬁc applications, an evolutionary perspective fundamentally challenges the
prevalent but fundamentally incorrect metaphor of the body as a machine
designed by an engineer.
Chambers (1995) described the eight diminution of deprivation among the
elderly as poverty, social inferiority, social isolation, physical weakness, vulnerability,
seasonality, powerlessness and humiliation of the aged. The poverty is sought to be a major
risk of ageing in developing countries (Sen K1994) and study by world bank reveals that in
the most of developing countries the older people and dependent are poor and vulnerable
(world Bank 1994). The linkage between ageing and poverty and deprivation can have three
channels of relations.
All Americans have a stake in effective response to hate
crimes. These crimes demand priority attention because
of their special impact. Bias crimes are designed to
intimidate the victim and members of the victim’s
community, leaving them feeling isolated, vulnerable,
and unprotected by the law. Failure to address this
unique type of crime could cause an isolated incident to
explode into widespread community tension. The
damage done by hate crimes, therefore, cannot be
measured solely in terms of physical injury or dollars and
Imaging of sports related injuries has always been a very popular topic and the interest
of radiologists in this domain has even increased in recent years.
Competitive athletes are vulnerable to a variety of injuries and they are often very
demanding in their expectations of a correct diagnosis, appropriate treatment and advice
on prognosis and estimated recovery period. Working in sports imaging means team
effort, whereby sports physicians, physical therapists, orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists
and technicians work closely together. Radiology plays a pivotal role in this process....
Lack of secure land tenure and ownership also has a negative impact on women’s ability to
reduce their vulnerability to HIV through greater economic as well as physical security and
autonomy. When a woman does not own land, it often means that she is denied other economic
opportunities, such as collateral for credit. Most women in the Huairou Commission have reported
frustration at not being able to access adequate financing for improvement of what little land they
may have, or for actually gaining or purchasing land or other property.
The physical, social and intellectual development of
children from conception to the end of adolescence
requires an environment that is both protected and
protective of their health. A growing number of dis-
eases in children are linked to unsafe environments.
Prenatal and early life exposures, including diet, are
associated with child health and human development
and predispose to late adult effects. Thus, the INMA
project is based on three main rationales.
First, exposure to environmental pollutants through
air, water and food is worldwide.
Although pregnancy is considered a normal state, it is a vulnerable period in a woman's life
because of exposure to a series of physical, mental, and socially adverse conditions. The earlier
these conditions are recognized and addressed, the greater the chances of minimizing their
Addressing psychological distress during the perinatal period in an appropriate way makes
circumstances better for the woman and her baby in the contexts in which they are living. Health
workers attitudes and behaviours are of fundamental importance to promoting mental health.
Property-grabbing from widows and orphans began long before the HIV and AIDS pandemic. However, the scale of HIV infection rates, stigmatisation and the social and economic vulnerability of widows and orphans have worsened the situation. Targets of psychological and physical harassment, dispossessed of their property and evicted from their homes, women and children are left destitute.Too often, the personal stories of both hardship and resilience in the face of adversity are lost in the statistics and dry overviews of national policies and epidemiological trends.
As the NCPCR policy document states, “[...]
civil unrest exposes children to multiple
deprivations. Children are killed, hurt and
maimed as a direct result of violence. Access
to food, water, sanitation, health care and
schooling deteriorates during unrest. Political
insecurity pushes children into situations that
can circumscribe the remainder of their lives.
It disrupts families and social networks that
support children’s physical, emotional and
social development. The NCPCR has
encountered children who are displaced and
forced to drop out of school as a result.