Vulnerability and adaptation

Xem 1-11 trên 11 kết quả Vulnerability and adaptation
  • A major task of our time is to ensure adequate food supplies for the world’s current population (now nearing 7 billion) in a sustainable way while protecting the vital functions and biological diversity of the global environment. The task of providing for a growing population is likely to be even more difficult in view of actual and potential changes in climatic conditions due to global warming, and as the population continues to grow. Current projections suggest that the world’s temperatures will rise 1.8–4.

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  • Ouandja Sudanese refugee camp has shown that 32% of children suffer from SAM. In addition, HIV rate prevalence (6.2%) is amongst the highest in the region and with a third of the population completely lacking access to clean water and sanitation facilities; preventable diseases are wreaking havoc amongst CAR’s vulnerable and conflict-affected populations. Only 51% of children get the opportunity to attend primary school, the figure is much lower in CAR’s conflict affected prefectures where the majority of schools are closed due to the ongoing instability.

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  • Global warming and changes in climate have already had observed impacts on natural ecosystems and species. Natural systems such as wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, cloud forests, Arctic and high latitude ecosystems are especially vulnerable to climate‐induced disturbances. Enhanced protection and management of biological resources and habitats can mitigate impacts and contribute to solutions as nations and communities strive to adapt to climate change. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries.

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  • The approach to assessing climate risks and im- pacts consists of the following sequential steps: (1) determining climate variables at the level of the city/watershed through downscaling techniques; (2) estimating impacts and vulnerability through hydrometeorological modeling, scenario analysis, and GIS mapping; and (3) preparing a damage/ loss assessment and identification/prioritization of adaptation options. As a first step, each of the city-level studies considered two IPCC scenarios, a high- and a low- emissions scenario, 4 and estimated climate risks to 2050.

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  • The National Target Program (NTP) will communicate priority activities addressing the urgent and immediate needs and concerns of the country, relating to adaptation to the impacts of CC. Activities proposed through NTP would be those whose further delay could increase vulnerability, or lead to increased costs at a later stage. The NTP will be presented in the form of a document specifying a list of priority activities, with a concise justification based on a tight set of criteria.

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  • Twenty years ago, world leaders gathered at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and signed the first global agreement to tackle climate change. At the time, the impacts of climate change on communities and economies were just beginning to be understood, and the role of the private sector in responding to these challenges was only just emerging. But two decades later, climate change is no longer a distant threat looming on the horizon; it has emerged as arguably the greatest global challenge of our time.

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  • Anomalous climatic outcomes such as higher temperatures, intense rainfall and flood, frequent and severe droughts are now at the new level. Without appropriate adaptation measures, climate change is bound to exacerbate vulnerability of society, place food security and human health at risk, threaten the lives of growing urban population and impede the goal of attaining sustainable development. The human and social dimensions of climate change, including climate policy, are essential parts of our response to the many challenges emanating from climate change....

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  • Current efforts to address climate change focus mainly on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through cleaner energy strategies, and on attempting to reduce vulnerability of communities at risk by improving infrastructure to meet new energy and water needs. This report attempts to set out a compelling argument for including ecosystem‐based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third and essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. The report is targeted at both Bank task teams and country clients.

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  • Taking the network scenario of Figure 1, there will be web interfaces (routers and serv- ers), BACnet/IP controllers (connected to interesting devices that are network accessible), and operator workstations that may have vulnerable OS as well as configuration files and other interesting data and resources. The following table is adapted from a Drexel report on network security [Eisenstein et al., 2003a] and lists known IT threats to a BACnet network connected to the public Internet.

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  • Disorders of Gait The heterogeneity of gait disorders observed in clinical practice reflects the large network of neural systems involved in the task. There is the potential for abnormalities to develop, and walking is vulnerable to neurologic disease at every level. Gait disorders have been classified descriptively, based on the abnormal physiology and biomechanics. One problem with this approach is that many failing gaits look fundamentally similar. This overlap reflects common patterns of adaptation to threatened balance stability and declining performance.

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  • Previous World Health Organization studies have examined the aggregate disease burden attributed to key environmental risks globally and regionally, quantifying the amount of death and disease caused by factors such as unsafe drinking-water and sanitation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Building from that experience, this present study examines how specific diseases and injuries are impacted by environmental risks, and which regions and populations are most vulnerable to environmentally-mediated diseases and injuries.

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