A major task of our time is to ensure adequate
food supplies for the world’s current population
(now nearing 7 billion) in a sustainable way
while protecting the vital functions and biological
diversity of the global environment. The task
of providing for a growing population is likely
to be even more difficult in view of actual and
potential changes in climatic conditions due to
global warming, and as the population continues
to grow. Current projections suggest that the
world’s temperatures will rise 1.8–4.
Ouandja Sudanese refugee camp has
shown that 32% of children suffer from
SAM. In addition, HIV rate prevalence
(6.2%) is amongst the highest in the
region and with a third of the population
completely lacking access to clean water
and sanitation facilities; preventable
diseases are wreaking havoc amongst
CAR’s vulnerable and conflict-affected
Only 51% of children get the opportunity
to attend primary school, the figure is
much lower in CAR’s conflict affected
prefectures where the majority of schools
are closed due to the ongoing instability.
Global warming and changes in climate have already had observed impacts on natural
ecosystems and species. Natural systems such as wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, cloud
forests, Arctic and high latitude ecosystems are especially vulnerable to climate‐induced
disturbances. Enhanced protection and management of biological resources and habitats can
mitigate impacts and contribute to solutions as nations and communities strive to adapt to
climate change. Biodiversity is the foundation and mainstay of agriculture, forests, and fisheries.
The approach to assessing climate risks and im-
pacts consists of the following sequential steps: (1)
determining climate variables at the level of the
city/watershed through downscaling techniques;
(2) estimating impacts and vulnerability through
hydrometeorological modeling, scenario analysis,
and GIS mapping; and (3) preparing a damage/
loss assessment and identification/prioritization
of adaptation options.
As a first step, each of the city-level studies
considered two IPCC scenarios, a high- and a low-
and estimated climate risks
The National Target Program (NTP) will communicate priority
activities addressing the urgent and immediate needs and concerns
of the country, relating to adaptation to the impacts of CC. Activities proposed through NTP would be those whose further delay could increase vulnerability, or lead to increased costs at a later stage. The NTP will be presented in the form of a document specifying a
list of priority activities, with a concise justification based on a
tight set of criteria.
Twenty years ago, world leaders gathered at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and signed the
first global agreement to tackle climate change. At the time, the impacts of climate change on
communities and economies were just beginning to be understood, and the role of the private
sector in responding to these challenges was only just emerging. But two decades later, climate
change is no longer a distant threat looming on the horizon; it has emerged as arguably the
greatest global challenge of our time.
Anomalous climatic outcomes such as higher temperatures, intense rainfall and flood, frequent and severe droughts are now at the new level. Without appropriate adaptation measures, climate change is bound to exacerbate vulnerability of society, place food security and human health at risk, threaten the lives of growing urban population and impede the goal of attaining sustainable development. The human and social dimensions of climate change, including climate policy, are essential parts of our response to the many challenges emanating from climate change....
Current efforts to address climate change focus mainly on reducing emissions of greenhouse
gases, mainly through cleaner energy strategies, and on attempting to reduce vulnerability of
communities at risk by improving infrastructure to meet new energy and water needs. This
report attempts to set out a compelling argument for including ecosystem‐based approaches to
mitigation and adaptation as a third and essential pillar in national strategies to address climate
change. The report is targeted at both Bank task teams and country clients.
Taking the network scenario of Figure 1, there will be web interfaces (routers and serv-
ers), BACnet/IP controllers (connected to interesting devices that are network accessible),
and operator workstations that may have vulnerable OS as well as configuration files and
other interesting data and resources.
The following table is adapted from a Drexel report on network security [Eisenstein et al.,
2003a] and lists known IT threats to a BACnet network connected to the public Internet.
Disorders of Gait
The heterogeneity of gait disorders observed in clinical practice reflects the large network of neural systems involved in the task. There is the potential for abnormalities to develop, and walking is vulnerable to neurologic disease at every level. Gait disorders have been classified descriptively, based on the abnormal physiology and biomechanics. One problem with this approach is that many failing gaits look fundamentally similar. This overlap reflects common patterns of adaptation to threatened balance stability and declining performance.
Previous World Health Organization studies have examined the aggregate
disease burden attributed to key environmental risks globally and
regionally, quantifying the amount of death and disease caused by factors
such as unsafe drinking-water and sanitation, and indoor and outdoor air
Building from that experience, this present study examines how specific
diseases and injuries are impacted by environmental risks, and which
regions and populations are most vulnerable to environmentally-mediated
diseases and injuries.