Waste materials

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  • Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies Handbook .Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies Handbook Editor-in-Chief Chang Ho Oh, Ph.D. CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. .Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hazardous and radioactive waste treatment technologies handbook / Chang H. Oh [editor] p. cm. (The mechanical engineering handbook series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-9586-0 (alk. paper) 1. Hazardous wastes--Purification--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2.

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  • The steady increase in industrialization, urbanization and enormous population growth are leading to production of huge quantities of wastewaters that may frequently cause environmental hazards. Raw or treated waste water is very oft en discharged to freshwaters and results in changing ecological performance and biological diversity of these systems. About 70% of water supplied ends up as wastewater and several natural water reservoirs are being contaminated by untreated sewage/industrial effl uents. This makes waste water treatment and waste water reduction very important issues....

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  • No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing...

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  • Wastes are materials generated as a result of numerous anthropic activities and should be disposed to prevent environmental pollution which aff ects human health and contributes ecosystem degradation. Most of the environmental problems, which we are dealing with, are a result of improper management of wastes. In particular, fresh water resources are under serious stress throughout the globe. Water supply and water quality degradation are global concerns.

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  • The amount of energy that people used in the past two decades is equivalent to the total amount of energy in the past. This huge increase of energy use has been made possible by extending depletion of fossil reserves and is clearly unsustainable. Does it mean that once the reserves are exhausted the amount of energy available to humans would be similar before the era of fossil fuels? Not necessarily. Currently, the total energy used by mankind No. 1/5500 fraction of the total incident solar energy on earth....

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  • The quantum of wastes generated in urban centres has become one of the difficult tasks for those responsible for their management. The problem is becoming acute specially in economically developing countries, where there is a financial crunch, and other resources are scarce. Although, there are varieties of publications dealing with various topics of solid waste management, most of these documents have been published addressing the needs of developed nations.

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  • Solid waste management is one of the important disciplines of environmental management. It is divided into two parts, dealing with biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste. The segregation of waste in most developing countries is a difficult task. This problem has a wide range of causes, including the lack of public knowledge of the problem. Lack of funds plays a small but very vital role.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'integrated waste management – volume ii', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Ever since the Industrial Revolution, industrial activities have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste. The commensurate increase in industrialization, urbanization and population growth are leading to production of enormous quantities of industrial wastes that may cause degradation in environment and health hazards. On the other hand, the desire for a healthy environment increases, which leads to the need for better ways of waste minimization, pollution prevention and better use of resources in achieving the required industrial and environmental standards....

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  • Pulp and paper is a mature industry. Industrialised paper manufacturing in Europe started in the early 19th century (Berkhout, 2005). It is a capital and resource-intensive industry that contributes to many environmental problems, including global warming, human tox- icity, eco-toxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, nutrification, and solid wastes (Blazejczak and Edler, 2000). Paper is made of natural fibres, either from wood or from recycled materials. Figure 1 below presents a schematic representation of the production system.

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  • In many developed nations, significant progress has been made in reducing direct discharges of pollutants into water bodies, primarily through increased treatment of industrial wastewater before it is discharged. An OECD report found that in member countries in the past several decades, “industrial discharges of heavy metals and persistent chemicals have been reduced by 70-to-90 percent or more in most cases” (OECD 2006).

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  • Engineered barriers to isolate potentially harmful waste from humans and ecosystems have been used for over 35 years, and much has been written about them and their constituent components. However, few reports have provided an overall assessment of the performance of engineered barrier systems. The last broad assessment was conducted in 1995 (Rumer and Mitchell, 1995). Since that time, new materials and sensor technologies have been introduced and models to predict contaminant transport have improved.

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  • Physical units can be specific to the kind of resource recorded (tonnes, cubic meters, hectares, number of units) or common to a range of resources. In this case, a unit-equivalent needs to be found. For example, material flow accounts which are currently the main basis for resource-efficiency analysis record 'everything' in tonnes. Another solution is to use carbon or energy unit-equivalents, as in UNFCCC reporting. The Ecological Footprint Accounts propose surface area as a general unit-equivalent. These solutions are obviously incomplete (e.g.

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  • Beneficiation (or concentration) processes are gener- ally used to upgrade the phosphate content by removing contaminants and barren material prior to further processing. A few ores are of sufficiently high quality to require no further concentration. The natu- rally occurring impurities contained in phosphate rock ore depend heavily on the type of deposit (sedi- mentary or igneous), associated minerals, and the extent of weathering. Major impurities can include organic matter, clay and other fines, siliceous material, carbonates, and iron bearing minerals.

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  • In 1968 the NCRP Board of Directors, in an expansion of its internal emitter effort, assigned to Scientific Committee 24 the task of examining tritiated thymidine to determine whether the values for pennissible body burdens and concentrations of tritium as tritiated water given in NCRP Report No. 22 would be applicable. As the Committee studied the problem, they decided it would be appropriate to examine all radionuclides and additional compounds that have the potential for incorporation into genetic material....

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  • An inventory of all the chemicals including pharmaceuticals was made and a special task force was formed to advise the government on proper disposal system. Many donors were approached to provide financial assistance for the disposal but the response was until 1995 when the Netherlands government offered 1.5 million USD for the whole exercise which involved repacking, recollection in special centers and finally to remove the chemicals including pharmaceuticals to be incinerated in the UK. Rechem Company was contracted to do the job and 400 tons were removed in 1995.

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  • Sustainability in natural systems is built on the closed-end process of recycling materials. Our present society produces so much that is not recyclable, like resin-molded chairs and air polluting automobile tires, that it is necessary to apply intention to source reduction and product responsibility. Chapter 18 provides knowledge of municipal solid waste and how to disposal and recovery.

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  • Determination of periodontal diagnosis and the extent and severity of periodontal tissue damage through standard periodontal assessment has traditionally been based on an array of clinical measurements, including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI) and radiographic findings.

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  • Risk assessment is an inexact science. Successful risk assessment practitioners rely heavily on extensive and well-documented databases.

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  • This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts, water consumption, produced allergens and toxins....

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