Waste water treatment materials

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  • The steady increase in industrialization, urbanization and enormous population growth are leading to production of huge quantities of wastewaters that may frequently cause environmental hazards. Raw or treated waste water is very oft en discharged to freshwaters and results in changing ecological performance and biological diversity of these systems. About 70% of water supplied ends up as wastewater and several natural water reservoirs are being contaminated by untreated sewage/industrial effl uents. This makes waste water treatment and waste water reduction very important issues....

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  • Research Reports IWMI’s mission is to improve the management of land and water resources for food, livelihoods and environment. In serving this mission, IWMI concentrates on the integration of policies, technologies and management systems to achieve workable solutions to real problems—practical, relevant results in the field of irrigation and water and land resources.

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  • The objective of waste water treatment is to prevent large quantities of substances to reach and impact the environment in high doses and concentrations. Areas of high population densitiy naturally are areas were production of sewage sludge is high (see Figure 1-1). Presently about 8 million t of sewage sludges (MAGOAROU 2000) are produced each year in the EU member states (Table 1-1). Its high content of organic materials, of nitrogen and phosphorous suggest their use as soil conditioner and fertilizer in agriculture.

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  • Pot and field trials were carried out using sediment dredged from the port of Bremen (Germany) and deposited in a settling basin near Bremen; the sediment is polluted with Cd and Zn. Five iron-bearing materials were added to the soil (1% pure Fe in soil dry matter) to immobilize the heavy metals: ‘Red mud from the aluminium industry, sludge from drinking-water treatment, bog iron ore, unused steel shot and steel shot waste.

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  • This section illustrates that MBT systems can be described as two simple concepts: either to separate the waste and then treat; or to treat the waste and then separate. In some systems only biological treatment is required to treat all the residual MSW before disposal to landfill. Whilst a variety of treatment and mechanical separation options are offered, these need to be optimised in terms of the outputs in order to find outlets for the various materials / fuels derived from the process (see Markets for the Outputs section). ...

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  • This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts, water consumption, produced allergens and toxins....

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  • Wastes are very process-specific but the key pollutants can be derived from knowledge of: the process, construction materials, corrosion / erosion mechanisms and maintenance materials. Waste audits are used to gather information on the source, composition, quantity and variability of all wastes. Waste prevention typically involves preventing the arising of waste at source, minimising the arisings and recycling any waste that is generated.

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  • VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology 24 (2008) 280-286 In this study, primarily treating waste sludge rich of Cr, Ni, Fe,…generated from electroplating wastewater treatment plant and experimentally methods of utilizing wastes as inorganic pigment in production of bricks were carried out. Economic, technical and environmental efficiency and feasibility, bases to apply to practical conditions were evaluated. The results show that water accounts for about 70% of sludge. Contents of Ni, Cr and Fe are relatively high (20, 4.5 and 2.5%, respectively). ...

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  • In many developed nations, significant progress has been made in reducing direct discharges of pollutants into water bodies, primarily through increased treatment of industrial wastewater before it is discharged. An OECD report found that in member countries in the past several decades, “industrial discharges of heavy metals and persistent chemicals have been reduced by 70-to-90 percent or more in most cases” (OECD 2006).

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  • The presence of chlorine in alternative fuels (e.g., sewage sludge, municipal solid waste or incineration ash, chlorinated biomass,) has both direct and indirect implications on cement kiln emissions and performance. Methods have been developed to properly manage chlorine and its potential implications – but it is important that these implications be recognized and managed. Trace levels of chlorine in feed materials can lead to the formation of acidic gases such as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) (WBCSD 2002).

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