Water is finite on earth. There is a fixed amount of water which neither decreases or
increases. Fresh water is a renewable resource because of the water cycle. From a human
perspective the source of freshwater is rainfall. Most of this rainfall is used directly for
vegetative growth, such as natural vegetation, pasture, rain-fed maize etc. This process,
known as transpiration, is highly productive and produces in Southern Africa the bulk of
As a matter of fact in some countries, mainly in India, groundwater development is
much more important than surface water irrigation (Mukherji et al. 2009).
While rainfed crops depend only on meteorological conditions, irrigated crops
depend both on rain regimes and water supply. The combination of these regimes
and the interdependencies between international commodity markets and domestic
production create opportunities to ensure that water is allocated to the most valuable
Measurement of efficiency started with Farrell (1957) who, following Debreu (1951)
and Koopmas (1951), proposed a division of efficiency into two components: technical
efficiency, which represents a firm’s ability to produce a maximum level of output from
a given level of inputs, and allocative efficiency, which is the ability of a firm to use
inputs in optimal proportions, given their respective prices and available technology.
The combination of these two measures yields the level of economic efficiency.
In his History of the World Roberts (1990:908), commenting on a world
population exceeding 5 billion persons, writes: ‘Though it had taken at least
50000 years for Homo sapiens to increase to 1000 millions (a figure reached in
1840 or so) the last 1000 million of his species took only 15 years to be added to
a total growing more and more rapidly’. More recently it is estimated that the world
population reached 6 billion in October 1999 and that the increase from 5 to 6
billion, huge army of the world’s desires, took place in a mere 12 years (Schoon
The Delaware River Basin Commission is a regulatory body that was established in 1961 by a
congressional compact. It includes a division engineer from the US Army Corps of Engineers and
representatives from New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware who are appointed
individually by the executive office in each state . Any decision of the Commission involves the
approval of all members. The Commission has full water resource management authority, including
water allocations and diversions.
The objective of this paper is the appraisal of the hydrological, hydrogeological, as well as the chemical and microbiological conditions of the surface water and ground water resources of the two study sites. In order to allocate the two study sites into a regional context an intense research on the conditions of the surrounding area was also matter of the survey
After the state identified a nutrient problem (nitrogen and phosphorous) in
the basin, it recommended a strategy to limit nutrient discharges from a
group of point source dischargers. Subsequently, some of the dischargers
formed an association and proposed an alternative strategy that included
pollutant trading. The strategy, approved by the state, contains a total,
allowable discharge level for the association that, in turn, allocates
individual discharge limits among its members. If ...
Improvement in water quality monitoring systems is an intervention required world-wide,
not only in developing countries. There are, however, huge differences from country to
country in the shortcomings induced by inadequate, existing monitoring systems. In most
developing countries the problem is one of too little monitoring due to a lack of allocated
resources for this activity. In several central and eastern European countries the problem
is different. Extensive monitoring programmes have been functioning for many years and
many raw data have been collected.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế, đề tài: "The effects of elevated CO 2 and water stress on whole plant CO 2 exchange, carbon allocation and osmoregulation in oak seedlings...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế, đề tài: Changes in carbon uptake and allocation patterns in Quercus robur seedlings in response to elevated an 2 CO and water stress: C 13 labelling...
Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing a tax credit to the bondholders in lieu of interest payments from the issuer. Because CREBs are theoretically interest free, they may be more attractive than traditional tax-exempt municipal bonds.
In February 2009, Congress appropriated a total of $2.4 billion for the “New CREBs” program.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: Divergence among species and populations of Mediterranean pines in biomass allocation of seedlings grown under two watering regimes...
Improving water security can be achieved
through increasing water supply, reducing
water demand, as well as addressing water
quantity and water quality issues related to
broader water resource management. Current
OECD work on water security is examining
how best to manage risks and tradeoffs in the
allocation of scarce water resources, in the
allocation of pollution loads and in mitigating
and preventing droughts and floods.
Highway spending, however, is not the only area where money is allocated in this
fashion. According to the Congressional Research Service, the nation’s 20 busiest
ports handle 80 percent of arriving oceangoing ships but account for less than 40
percent of federal Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund expenditures.
In the alloca-
tion of funds for drinking water projects, millions of dollars are allotted every year
just to ensure that every state receives at least 1 percent of the funds available.
· Namibia is carrying out a phased testing and implementation of the SEEA approach to
environmental accounting. It is focused on several key natural resource sectors, and is
designed to answer such questions as how to allocate water among competing uses and
how land degradation affects the productivity of rangeland.
· The Netherlands routinely constructs the "National Accounting Matrix Including
Environmental Accounts" (NAMEA), an extended form of the national accounts
input/output matrix which tracks pollution emissions by economic sector.
In most cases the resources (financial, human, and others) required for addressing all
identified water quality problems significantly exceed the resources allocated to the
water pollution control sector. Priorities, therefore, need to be assigned to all problems in
order to concentrate the available resources on solving the most urgent and important
problems. If this is not done the effect may be an uncoordinated and scattered
management effort, resulting in a waste of scarce resources on less important problems.
Natural resources- definition, characteristics and classification of natural resources. Historical
development of natural resource economics, major natural resource issues, role of economics in
natural resource planning, policy formulation and management. Common property resources. Time
and spatial analysis in use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. Natural resource
accounting. Natural resource scarcity, measures to mitigate resource scarcity, individual utility and
the social welfare function.
Key governance challenges include institutional
and territorial fragmentation and poorly managed
multi‑level governance. Limited capacity at the local
level, unclear allocation of roles and responsibilities
and questionable resource allocation are also
problematic. This is often reflected in patchy financial
management and the lack of long‑term strategic
planning, together with weak economic regulation
and poorly drafted legislation. Insufficient means
for measuring performance have contributed to low
accountability and transparency.
A central philosophy of an integrated
approach to water resources management
is that water should be managed at the
lowest appropriate level. This means taking
a basin approach where appropriate and
decentralizing decision making, usually
with increasing input and role for various
stakeholders with an interest in how water
resources are allocated and management
decisions are being made.