Water allocation

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  • Water is finite on earth. There is a fixed amount of water which neither decreases or increases. Fresh water is a renewable resource because of the water cycle. From a human perspective the source of freshwater is rainfall. Most of this rainfall is used directly for vegetative growth, such as natural vegetation, pasture, rain-fed maize etc. This process, known as transpiration, is highly productive and produces in Southern Africa the bulk of food crops.

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  • As a matter of fact in some countries, mainly in India, groundwater development is much more important than surface water irrigation (Mukherji et al. 2009). While rainfed crops depend only on meteorological conditions, irrigated crops depend both on rain regimes and water supply. The combination of these regimes and the interdependencies between international commodity markets and domestic production create opportunities to ensure that water is allocated to the most valuable ends.

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  • Measurement of efficiency started with Farrell (1957) who, following Debreu (1951) and Koopmas (1951), proposed a division of efficiency into two components: technical efficiency, which represents a firm’s ability to produce a maximum level of output from a given level of inputs, and allocative efficiency, which is the ability of a firm to use inputs in optimal proportions, given their respective prices and available technology. The combination of these two measures yields the level of economic efficiency.

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  • In his History of the World Roberts (1990:908), commenting on a world population exceeding 5 billion persons, writes: ‘Though it had taken at least 50000 years for Homo sapiens to increase to 1000 millions (a figure reached in 1840 or so) the last 1000 million of his species took only 15 years to be added to a total growing more and more rapidly’. More recently it is estimated that the world population reached 6 billion in October 1999 and that the increase from 5 to 6 billion, huge army of the world’s desires, took place in a mere 12 years (Schoon 1999)....

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  • The Delaware River Basin Commission is a regulatory body that was established in 1961 by a congressional compact. It includes a division engineer from the US Army Corps of Engineers and representatives from New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware who are appointed individually by the executive office in each state [21]. Any decision of the Commission involves the approval of all members. The Commission has full water resource management authority, including water allocations and diversions.

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  • The objective of this paper is the appraisal of the hydrological, hydrogeological, as well as the chemical and microbiological conditions of the surface water and ground water resources of the two study sites. In order to allocate the two study sites into a regional context an intense research on the conditions of the surrounding area was also matter of the survey

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  • After the state identified a nutrient problem (nitrogen and phosphorous) in the basin, it recommended a strategy to limit nutrient discharges from a group of point source dischargers. Subsequently, some of the dischargers formed an association and proposed an alternative strategy that included pollutant trading. The strategy, approved by the state, contains a total, allowable discharge level for the association that, in turn, allocates individual discharge limits among its members. If ...

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  • Improvement in water quality monitoring systems is an intervention required world-wide, not only in developing countries. There are, however, huge differences from country to country in the shortcomings induced by inadequate, existing monitoring systems. In most developing countries the problem is one of too little monitoring due to a lack of allocated resources for this activity. In several central and eastern European countries the problem is different. Extensive monitoring programmes have been functioning for many years and many raw data have been collected.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế, đề tài: "The effects of elevated CO 2 and water stress on whole plant CO 2 exchange, carbon allocation and osmoregulation in oak seedlings...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế, đề tài: Changes in carbon uptake and allocation patterns in Quercus robur seedlings in response to elevated an 2 CO and water stress: C 13 labelling...

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  • Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing a tax credit to the bondholders in lieu of interest payments from the issuer. Because CREBs are theoretically interest free, they may be more attractive than traditional tax-exempt municipal bonds. In February 2009, Congress appropriated a total of $2.4 billion for the “New CREBs” program.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: Divergence among species and populations of Mediterranean pines in biomass allocation of seedlings grown under two watering regimes...

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  • Improving water security can be achieved through increasing water supply, reducing water demand, as well as addressing water quantity and water quality issues related to broader water resource management. Current OECD work on water security is examining how best to manage risks and tradeoffs in the allocation of scarce water resources, in the allocation of pollution loads and in mitigating and preventing droughts and floods.

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  • Highway spending, however, is not the only area where money is allocated in this fashion. According to the Congressional Research Service, the nation’s 20 busiest ports handle 80 percent of arriving oceangoing ships but account for less than 40 percent of federal Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund expenditures. 20 In the alloca- tion of funds for drinking water projects, millions of dollars are allotted every year just to ensure that every state receives at least 1 percent of the funds available.

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  • · Namibia is carrying out a phased testing and implementation of the SEEA approach to environmental accounting. It is focused on several key natural resource sectors, and is designed to answer such questions as how to allocate water among competing uses and how land degradation affects the productivity of rangeland. · The Netherlands routinely constructs the "National Accounting Matrix Including Environmental Accounts" (NAMEA), an extended form of the national accounts input/output matrix which tracks pollution emissions by economic sector.

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  • In most cases the resources (financial, human, and others) required for addressing all identified water quality problems significantly exceed the resources allocated to the water pollution control sector. Priorities, therefore, need to be assigned to all problems in order to concentrate the available resources on solving the most urgent and important problems. If this is not done the effect may be an uncoordinated and scattered management effort, resulting in a waste of scarce resources on less important problems.

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  • Natural resources- definition, characteristics and classification of natural resources. Historical development of natural resource economics, major natural resource issues, role of economics in natural resource planning, policy formulation and management. Common property resources. Time and spatial analysis in use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. Natural resource accounting. Natural resource scarcity, measures to mitigate resource scarcity, individual utility and the social welfare function.

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  • Key governance challenges include institutional and territorial fragmentation and poorly managed multi‑level governance. Limited capacity at the local level, unclear allocation of roles and responsibilities and questionable resource allocation are also problematic. This is often reflected in patchy financial management and the lack of long‑term strategic planning, together with weak economic regulation and poorly drafted legislation. Insufficient means for measuring performance have contributed to low accountability and transparency.

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  • A central philosophy of an integrated approach to water resources management is that water should be managed at the lowest appropriate level. This means taking a basin approach where appropriate and decentralizing decision making, usually with increasing input and role for various stakeholders with an interest in how water resources are allocated and management decisions are being made.

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